For dryland crops, the breeding program directs to yield improvement, eating and nutritional quality, disease and insect resistance, and value-added processing of maize and peanut. Recent improved varieties include peanut Tainung No. 7, 8 and 9; forage maize Tainung No. 3; white maize Tainung No. 4; and black glutinous maize Tainung No. 5. The future agendas will engage in quality and yield improvement of forage maize, upgrading of fresh eating quality and processing quality with local flavor, and breeding for different attributes of maize and peanut. These efforts are to generate diverse consumer choices so as to enhance product competitiveness and increase the farmers’ incomes.