|Title:||菜豆抗銹病篩選及銹病菌之生理小種||Other Titles:||Screening Common Beans for Rust Resistance and Physiological Races of Bean Rust Fungus in Taiwan||Authors:||葉忠川
|Issue Date:||8-Sep-1983||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||32||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||259-269||Source:||中華農業研究||Abstract:||
從美國農部（USDA ）、國際熱帶農業中心（CITA ）及臺中區農業改良場等處共收集153 個菜豆（Phaseolus vulgaris L . ）品系，經過二年三季之田間抗銹病篩選，發現抗病型（R ）有Nep-2 等55 個品系，中抗（MR ）有compuesto Negro Chimaltenango 等16 個品系，中感型（MS ）有Veracruz l-A-6 等10 個品系，感病型（S ）有U. S. 3 等42 個品系，對銹病之反應乃依據單葉及複葉上病斑大小之等級而定一1 級為免疫型（I），無病徵出現；2 級為抗病型（R），呈現過敏性反應之細斑，但不產生夏孢子堆；3 級為中抗型（MR ）病斑之直徑小於300 μm ; 4 級為中感型（MS），病斑之直徑介於300 與500 μm 之間；5 級為感數型（S）；病斑大於500 μm 。從USDA 及CIAT 得到之抗病品系雖然其園藝性狀不能直接做為本地生產嫩莢之品種，但因其抗病性較穩定，又有些品系十分早熟，可做為育種材料。從農試所、種苗場、屏東、臺東及花蓮等地所採集之菜豆銹病菌，經過在U. S. 3 , 181 , 643 , 111 , 765 , 780 , 814 及GGW 等判別品種之單葉上表皮測定之結果，再經過與已經報告之生理小種的反應相比，發現臺灣之菜豆銹病菌有15 個生理小種，農試所有6 、7 、18 及24 等4 個生理小種，種苗場有5 、6 、9 、11 、15 、19 等6 個生理小種，屏東有14 、15 、18 、23 、24 、25 、26、33 等8 個生理小種，臺東有14 、18 、23 、26 等4 個生理小種，花蓮有18 及22 等2 個生理小種。同一地點所採集之夏孢子接種在同一品種上常出現有二種或二種以上大小不同之病斑。
One-hundred and fifty-three varieties/lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) obtained from of United State Department of Agriculture, Centro Internacional de Agricura Tropical (CIAT) and Taichung District of Agricultural Improvemnt Station ( Taichung DAIS) were screened for resistance to rust in Taiwan. Based on the pustule size of rust on the primary and trifoliolate leaves of the three screening plantings in 1981 and 1982, 85, 16, 20 and 42 varieties/lines were recorded as resistant (R), moderately resistant (MR), moderately susceptible (MS) and susceptible (S), respectively. The grading scale consisted of 5 grades 1, immune (I) ; 2, necrotio flecking (R) ; 3, pustules 300 μm or smaller (MR) ; 4, pustules between 300 and 500 μm (MS) and 5, pustules 500 μm or larger (S). Varieties U. S. 3, 181, 643, 111, 765, 780, 814 and GGW were used as differentials for the identification of races of Uromyces phaseoli var typica in Taiwan. Uromyces phaseoli var. typica-infected bean leaves collected at Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Taiwan seed Services (TSS), Pingtung, Taitung and Hualien were used as inoculum. Inoculations were made by brushing uredospore suspension (2 × 104 spores/ml plus 0.1% of Tween 80) with a sterile camel brush for each isolate on the primary leaves of one-week-old plants of differential varieties. The inoculated plants were covered with transparent plastic bags for high humidity and were incubated in a growth chamber (Conviron Model E-15 or S-loh) programmed for 18C of night temperature and 24C of day temperature with 12-hrs of full light from 8 a. m. to 8 p. m. Plastic bags were removed 18 hrs after inoculation and the plants were still kept in the growth chamber for observation. After 2 weeks, the resulting pustules were measured with micrometer under a dissecting mocroscope. Based on the reaction types of the local isolates and comparing with the reaction of the 35 reported races of U. phaseoli var. typica, fifteen races were for the first time identified and reported in Taiwan. The 15 races are race 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 33. Races 6, 7, 18 and 24 were observed at TARI, race 5, 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19 at TSS, races 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 33 in Pingtung, races 14, 18, 23 and 24 in Taitung and races 18 and 24 in the Hualien collection.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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