|Title:||稻穀粒性狀之遺傳研究||Other Titles:||Genetical Studies on Grain Characters in Rice||Authors:||郭益全
|Issue Date:||1-Sep-1982||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||31||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||177-186||Source:||中華農業研究||Abstract:||
本試驗以Mira（Pl）× Norin 20（P2）組合之包括Pl、P2、Fl、F2、BCl及BC2等六個遺傳集團為材料，探討該組合稻穀之粒長、粒厚、粒寬及百粒重等4 個穀粒性狀之遺傳行為，結果獲知：粒長、粒厚、粒寬及百粒重等4 個穀粒性狀在F2集團之頻度分布圖形均呈連續性分布，但4 穀粒性狀分布圖形之樣式則不盡一致。雜種優勢、純雜種優勢及自交衰退量等三種遺傳介值普遍存在4 穀粒性狀，其經以Potence value 判定4 穀粒性狀在Fl之顯性程度及Mather and Jinks 變方成分劃分以評定4 穀粒性狀顯性度之估算結果十分近似，均呈短粒對長粒及粒厚對粒薄為不完全顯性；粒寬為超顯性；粒重方面則為微小程度之不完全顯性。經世代平均值分析指出，粒長及粒重之遺傳變異由累加性、顯性、累加性 × 累加性交感、累加性× 顯性交感、顯性 × 顯性交感等成分所支配，且兩性狀之顯性及顯性 × 顯性之交感等兩成分符號相反，表示屬重覆型之上位性。而粒厚之變異主要係累加性、顯性及累加性 × 累加性交感成分之效應。粒寬之變異則由顯性及累加性 × 顯性交感兩成分之效應所左右。4 穀粒性狀之廣義遺傳率介於82-94%之間，狹義遺傳率介於34-69 %之間，其中以粒長之遺傳率較高，而以粒厚者較低。相關分析之結果發現粒重與粒長、粒厚及粒寬均呈極顯著之正相關。
Genetical studies were made on four grain characters in rice using Fl F2 BCl and BC2 populations of the cross between Mira (Pl) and Norin 20 (P2) varieties. The grain length, grain thickness, grain width and 100-grain weight in F2, all showed continuous and unimodal distributions. However, the distribution curves are not symmetrical as indicated by different values of skewness and kurtosis for respective character.
Heterosis, heterobeltiosis and inbreeding depression of each character was detected in Fl of this cross, because the statistic of each characters was significantly departed from the zero value. The degree of dominance of the respective character expressed by potence value and the value estimated by Mather and Jinks’s formula of the comprehension of components of variance was quite similar, i. e. short grain is incompletely dominant over long grain the thick-grain is incompletely dominant over thin-grain; the wider grain is over-dominant to narrow grain and the heavy-grain weight is slightly partial dominance over light-grain weight.
The results of generation mean analysis indicated that the variations in grain length and 100 grain weight were mainly due to the gene effects of additive, dominance, additive × additive, additive × dominance and dominance × dominance. A difference in the signs of dominance and dominance × dominance components was observed, indicating a duplicated type of epistasis. The variation of grain thickness was largely due to additive, dominance and additive × additive gene effects. For grain width, the gene effects of dominance and additive × dominance components appeared to be more important.
The broad sense heritabilities of four grain characters ranged 82-90% while narrow sense heritabilitie ranged from 34-69%. The grain length and grain thickness showed the highest and lowest heritabities respectively among the four grain characters studied. It was observed further that 100-grain weight was possitively correlated with grain length, grain thickness and grain width.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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