|Title:||坡地果園覆蓋種類對土壤水分肥力果實產量影響之研究||Other Titles:||Experiments on the Relative Effectiveness of Different Cover Cropping and Mulching Practices in Slope Land Orchards||Authors:||張國勤
|Issue Date:||7-Dec-1974||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||23||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||292-306||Source:||農業研究||Abstract:||
本試驗之目的，在探討敷蓋及覆蓋作物對香蕉及柑桔生長之影響以及水分養分競爭問題，以供今後研究及推廣之依據。試驗設計採用完全逢機區集排列，重複6次，共有6種不同處理：(1)對照區（不種植覆蓋作物，亦不敷蓋任何東西，僅按一般農民之慣例行全面除草）。(2)敷蓋區（敷蓋稻草10,000公斤／公頃，再加蓋打洞PE塑膠布）。(3)多年生豆科之營多藤區(IntortumClover)。(4)多年生豆科之山珠兒豆區(Centrosema)。（5）多年生豆科之小卵葉藤區(Desmodium buergeri)。(6)多年生禾本科之巴喜亞草區（Bahia grass）。
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of mulching and cover
cropping on the soil fertility and moisture condition as well as the growth of banana
and citrus (Pongkan) so as to provide basic information for the practice of soil
management in orchards The experiment was conducted with six different treatments as follows:
1. CK, Untreatment, under usual practice of cultivation.
2. 1ice straw mulching; 10,000 kg/ha of straw covered with perforated PE film.
3. Intortum clover cover cropping (Legume)
4. Centrosema cover cropping (Legume)
5. Desmodium buergeri cover cropping (Legume)
6. Bahia grass cover cropping (Herb)
Treatments were replicated six times with completely randomized design and were conducted for 3 years from 1971 to 1973 The results obtained from banana plantation in Nan-tou with two crop harvests and citrus orchard in Taichung with three crop harvests may be summarized as follows:
1 Both the fruit production and growth condition of banana crop were not significantly affeced by treatments other than Bahia grass cover cropping which somewhat reduced the yield of banana. Fruit production of citrus grown in different orchard showed irregular results except a tendency of reducing yield of the plots with Bahia grass cover cropping. Concerning the quality of citrus fruits, considering two orchard as a whole, in comparison with that of check plot, peel of mulching treatment was thinner and juice contents of mulching, Desmodium buergeri, and Bahia grass cover cropping were higher. However, the fruit maturity was somewhat delayed by the treatments especially the mulching treatment.
2. Bahia grass grew vigorously resulting in high fresh grass yield in any condition, but expanding rate of canopy surface area of treatment with Bahia grass cover cropping was the lowest among treatments in a period of 3 years, and this treatment resulted in a tendency of reducing yield of citrus fruits, made its peel thinner, and the growth and yield of banana were reduced too, and soil water content was the lowest among treatments. These were the evidences of competition of water and nutrient between the grass cover cropping and main crops. In addition, dense roots of Bahia grass make fertilization inconvenience. So the grass may be an ideal protector for rise wall of bench terrace but will not be recommended as a cover crop on bench top. About legume cover crops, Centrosema grew better than other cover crops in banana plantation with a demerit of climbing twining habit on fruit trees. Intortum clover grew well in citrus orchard but Desmodium buergeri, grew poorly in both banana plantation and citrus orchard especially being poor in its regrowth vigor after mowing.
3. The effects of treatment on soil physical and chemical properties:
In each experimental cite, soil organic content was higher in all treated plots than in check plot. In banana plantation, organic content of mulching, Intortum clover and Desmodium buergeri, cover cropping plots was significantly higher than that of check plot. Organic content of Desmodium buergeri, and Bahia grass cover cropping plots of citrus orchard A, and mulching, Centrosema, and Bahia grass cropping plots of citrus orchard B were all significantly higher than that of check plot. Available K2O and P2O5 content indicated a wide fluctuation and no significant difference among treatments. This may be due to uneven distribution of applied fertilizers. Soil bulk density of treated plots was significantly reduced beginning in second year of experiment in comparison with check plot. The aggregate stability of the treated soil was higher than that of the soil in check plot. Particularly, Intortum clover cover cropping of banana plantation and Desmodium buergeri, of citrus orchard were the highest in each orchard respectively.
4. Effects of treatments on soil moisture content:
Moisture content of the mulching plots was the highest. It means that mulching with rice straw then covered with PE film was the best way for conserving soil moisture. But high price of PE film and cost of transportation of rice straw at present time made this way uneconomical. Of the cover cropping treatments, Centrosema and Intortum clover plots were the treatments of higher soil moisture content; and Desniodium buergeri, Bahia grass and check plots were the treatments with lower soil moisture content.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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