|Title:||黃麻扦插採種法之研究||Other Titles:||Studies on the Apical Cuttings of Jute for Seed Production||Authors:||季景元
|Issue Date:||1-Mar-1963||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||12||Journal Issue:||1||Start page/Pages:||1-34||Source:||農業研究||Abstract:||
本省農家，過去栽培黃麻，多在麻田一角，或農道旁邊，留少數麻株，採種自給，亦有留整塊麻田，採種出售，惟多去雜不淨，品種既易退化，後作作業，又不方便，土地利用上亦不經濟，且採種期常遭颱風損害，影響採種量，而扦插採種，則可兼顧纖維及種子，慎選插梢，確保品種純良，且育種上交配亦較便利，病蟲害或颱風損害麻株後，扦插仍可採得種子，作者等乃自民國 37 年起，分別在臺北臺灣省農業試驗所及該所臺南棉麻試驗分所，從事抒插採種法之研究，迄 47 年已有相當結果，並經示範推廣，獲有成效，茲應各界需要，將歷年研究結果整理，草擬本報告，將要點摘述如下：
(一） 扦插適當時期，約於 8 月上中旬，麻株開花期及幼果期，剪取插梢扦插，蘇活率及採種量最高。
(五） 扦插時毋需去葉，花期及乳熟期剪取之插梢，宜用 50 公分者，乳熟期剪取主莖或分枝為插梢者，蘇活率及採種量，無甚差異。
(六） 扦插後經過肥培管理，另生新根，對於養分之吸收力較強，故一般之採種量，較留株採種者為高，以現有推廣品種水上青皮而論，其抨插採種之每公頃平均採種量為 400 至 600 公斤，每株平均可得種子 5 公克，種子採收期約在 11 月底，較留株採種者稍遲。
Jute (Corchorus Capsularis, L) iS one of the most important long vegetable fiber crops in Taiwan. Its fiber is produced commercially by retting the outer bark of the stem and is mainly used as material for making gunny sacks to pack rice and sugar for domestic demand or exportation. Usually jute plants grown for better quality of fiber do not produce any seed; on the other hand, they kept for collecting seeds do not produce any fiber of commercial importance. In order to meet the seed shortage due to typhoon damage and for the convenience of crossing on breeding work, the apical cutting of jute for the production of seed has been studied by the authors at Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Taipei in 1948 and at Tainan Fiber Crops Experiment Station, Taiwan, Taiwan from 1953 to 1958. With the development of this method, the best quality of fibers and a maximum yield of seed could be produced from the same plant. The results of different experiments are summarized as follows:
1. The optimum time for selecting apical cutting: It was found that the optimum time for cutting off the apical flowering branches was after the maximum flowering stage with the formation of a few young capsules about from early August to mid August.
2. Planting methods of apical cutting: According to the experimental results, the following method for planting apical cuttings is found to be the best one for increasing the rate of survival and seed production, altough the apical cuttings may be planted erectly or obliquely for convenience. During harvesting time, the jute stalk is cut off from the ground. The apical portion bearing the flowering shoot which is quite tender does not give yield of much fiber. This apical portion may be cut off from the stalk and used as cutting. The apical portion could be tied on a piece of jute stem of 8-10 long. By inserting the stem piece into a flooded field as support leaving the basal portion of the apical cutting immersed in water but above soil, it would hasten the fibrous roots to develop within 5-8 days If properly managed, the rate of survival may reach as high as over 90%. After the cutting is set, new flowers may develop and capsules are in formation. The seeds will mature after 80-90 days about in late November.
3. Methods of field management: Draining dirty water and irrigating clean water every afternoon are necessary for increasing the rate of survival. As soon as the cutting survive, hilling, weeding and fertilizing are necessary in order to increase the production of seed.
4. Other Experiments: Leaf picking from apical cuttings is not necessary. When apical cuttings are cut off in maxium flowering stage, their optimum length are 50cm. Apical cuttings being cut off 10cm. from branching point of main stem. in the stage of young fruit show high surviving rate and yield of seed. The surviv-ing rate of apical cuttings from branches is higher than that from main stem when the apical portions are cut off in the milky stage of seed.
5. Fertilizer test of apical cutting: From the results of the experiments in 1954,
1955 and 1958 the phosphorous and nitrogeneous fertilizer are more effective on seed production in Chiayi.
6. The seed production of jute by apical cuttings is about 300-600kg. per hactare in normal case.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.