|Title:||本省北部水稻田土壤之特質及其生成||Other Titles:||The Characteristics and Genesis of Paddy Soils in Northern Part of Taiwan||Authors:||梁鉅榮
|Issue Date:||1-Jun-1973||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||22||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||77-97||Source:||農業研究||Abstract:||
11. 各類土壤受種植水稻之影響如下：a. 質地中等之土壤對水稻土之育成較易。b. 磚紅化土質地多偏於粕重，雖長期用為水稻田，除耕摯層外，仍多保存其原有特性。c. 灰粘土原係受高的地下水位影響所育成，水稻耕作對該土之影響不大。
This study includes the soils of paddy field of Taipei, I-lan, Taoyuan, Shinchu and Miaoli, the northern part of this province. The objective is to study the improvement of soil management, soil fertilization and soil classification in order to emphasize the reconi-zation and understanding of the soil proper characteristics of the paddy soils in Taiwan. Twelve soil profiles of representative soils according to their important patterns were sampled, and 13 items of the physico-chemical properties were analyzed. All the results are shown on appendix 1, 2 and 3. All the characters and the genesis of the 12 representative soils profiles are discussed in relation with 10 tables and 17 figures. It may be summaries as follow:
1. Six soil types may be classified as aquorizems by the development of their eluvial horizons and illuvial horizons. The other 6 soil types still belong to original soil groups and can be modified with “paddy” as sub-group. There are 3 great groups, 6 sub-groups, 11 soil series and 12 soil types based on the result of classification. It is shown on table 2, and the soil profile description is shown on table 3.
2. With all the soil sample studied fine texture occupies the largest proportion, moderate textured comes to the next and coarse textured soils the least, it is shown on table 4. It is rather special that most of the aquorizems are moderate in texture.
3. The changing pattern of soil bulk density with the soil depth in a given profile varies with different types of soil. It is shown on Fig. 1 to Fig. 3. The average bulk density of the 58 samples is l.55g/c.c., the lower limit is not less than l.2g/c.c. and the highest is over l.8g/c.c., it is shown on table 7.
4. The pore space of the surface soils is high showing on the 46% on the average the difference between sub-surface and the sub-soils is small. The lowest of the whole samples is 32%, the highest is 55% and the average is 42%, it is shown on table 8.
5. The distribution patterns of the free iron and free manganes of the six profils of aquo rizems show the accumulation of these elements in the sub-surface soil by leaching from surface soil as shown in Fig. 4 & 5.
6. The available silica content shows only slight changes as it goes down from surface to sub-soils as shown in Fig. 6a, 7a, 8a and 9a. On the contary, C.E.C. shows a great variation under the same conditions, it is shown in Fig. 6b, 7b, 8b, and 9b.
7. From the pH patterns of the soil profiles, it is concluded that the aquorizems belong to D types as shown in Fig.l0a and l0b. The Szu-chieh silty loam approaches C types as Fig. ha. The chengtze clay loam and Hsiatachu silty clay and the two soil types of the paddy yellowish brown latosols approaches B types as Fig. 11a and Fig. 11b.
8. The variation of the avcrage C/N ratio among the different soil types are very small, but variation of the sampling within a soil type is high. The grand average is 6.8, it is shown on table 9. The average ratio of surface soils is high and decreases with the depth of the profile, it is shown on table 10.
9. The organic matter content shows a rather uniform distrbution over the entire soil profile in the gray aquorizems and paddy yellowish brown latosols. It is found that the value decrease sudenly from plow lazer, but slowly after reaching sub-surface soil, it is shown in Fig. 12 and Fig. 14. The curves of the gray aqorizems and paddy gley soils are variant as Fig. 13 and Fig.15.
10. X-ray diffraction pattern is shown in Fig. 16, it shows that there is some chloride and illite in all of the 5 layers of the Szu-chieh silty loam. The results of D.T.A. is shown in Fig. 17, it shows that some illite is present in Kan-yuna silty clay loam and small amount of kaolinite is present in Kan-jin silty clay.
11. The influence of various great soil groups by rice planting is as follovng a) Aquoriz-ems was easier to be developed by the soils which are moderate in texture. b) The texture of latosols is mostly heavy, althogh it was used as paddy for a long time, but the original characters were still conserved except the plow layer. c) The gley soils were original developed by the effect of high ground water table, so the influeuce of these soils by rice planting is not great.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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