|Title:||Management of Biodiversity and Conservation of Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in Peru||Authors:||Manuel Sigüeñas||Issue Date:||Dec-2008||Start page/Pages:||173-188||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第135號||Conference:||Capacity Building for Development and Implementation of Risk Management Systems on Genetic Resources: proceedings of the APEC-ATCWG Workshop, Taichung, Chinese Taipei, October 14-17||Abstract:||
Peru has high ecological diversity, diverse climates, extensive ecological zones, large production areas, and highly productive ecosystems, which have supported high biodiversity, leading it to be recognized as a mega-diverse country and one of the world’s most important centers for plant and animal genetic resources. Also associated with this biodiversity is high cultural diversity.
Laws of international, regional, and national scope have been ratified and/or enacted in Peru, for the purpose of promoting conservation, sustainable use, and access to genetic resources under an ecosystem approach. In addition, laws have been enacted to protect the collective knowledge of indigenous people linked to biological resources, and also to ensure that the use of biotechnology does not harm biodiversity or the environment.
The National System of Protected Natural Areas of the Peruvian State is the main in situ conservation system of biological diversity; currently it includes 63 protected areas which represent 14.80% of the total area of the country. In addition, there are many plant and animal germplasm banks in which 54,351 accessions are conserved ex situ under medium- to long-term storage conditions.
In situ conservation of plant genetic resources has been practiced since ancestral times by local farmers, especially in the Andean region. Since the beginning of the 1990s, many projects of in situ conservation have been executed in different regions of the coast, mountains, and jungle, with the objective of studying the dynamics of this type of conservation, establish biodiversity microgenecenters, conduct seed fairs, and develop records of traditional varieties and their wild relatives and of conservationist farmers' practices. Peasant communities, together with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and regional governments, are promoting the recognition of geographical areas so that the resources there can be properly managed, including the components of biodiversity and genetic resources.
The Subdirection of Genetic Resources and Biotechnology of the National Institute of Agricultural Innovation has developed an information system (currently in the test phase) for managing information of its germplasm bank, and it also has been considered for inclusion in implementing the GRIN GLOBAL information system of genetic resources.
A complete system for managing genetic resources for food and agriculture must include the conservation of genetic resources (both ex situ and in situ conservation), the development of infrastructure for conservation, especially for the long term, and the development of human capabilities and information systems.
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