|Title:||高溫逆境衝擊紅龍果與荔枝生殖生長的評估、應用及芻議||Other Titles:||Assessment, Application, and Prospect to HighTemperature Stress Impact on the Reproductive Growth of Pitaya and Litchi||Authors:||朱堉君
|Keywords:||氣候變遷;暖化;高溫逆境;耐候性;紅龍果;荔枝;開花;結實;產量;品質;策略;climate change;warming;high-temperature stress;resilience;pitaya;litchi;flowering;fruiting;yield;quality;strategy||Issue Date:||Aug-2021||Publisher:||行政院農業委員會臺中區農業改良場||Related Publication(s):||臺中區農業改良場特刊第143號||Start page/Pages:||55-71||Source:||2021中部果樹產業因應氣候變遷之調適與策略發展研討會論文輯||Conference:||2021中部果樹產業因應氣候變遷之調適與策略發展研討會||Abstract:||
氣候變遷已造成臺灣之百年溫度上升 1.3℃，導致夏季增加 27.8 天、冬季減少 29.7 天，對果樹生育與生產影響甚鉅。紅龍果與荔枝為我國重要果樹，‘ 大紅 ’ 及 ‘ 玉荷包 ’ 分為其主要品種。然 ‘ 大紅 ’ 於夏季酷熱下易有小果化、未能發揮品種特性之問題，其原因與機制尚待釐清；冬季暖化導致 ‘ 玉荷包 ’ 帶葉花序 (leafy inflorescence) 大幅增加而純花序 (leafless inflorescence) 減少，成為果園管理之困擾，花序型態是否影響果實生產，待進一步闡明。本文回顧高溫逆境直接 / 間接影響二者於開花、結實之研究成果及應用。於人候室高溫逆境(40/30℃) 下之 ‘ 大紅 ’ 盆株發生開花提早、著果率低、小果化、種子數減少等現象，且果重與種子數呈正相關；高溫雖使近軸端枝條 (cladode) 黃化，但不影響枝條之乾物重。綜上顯示，影響結實的主因應為受精障礙、影響種子發育所致，而非碳同化物不足。田間遮陰可降低熱逆境、減少結實障礙，未來將進一步建立智慧噴水降溫系統，並探討高溫如何影響雄蕊及雌蕊稔性。‘ 玉荷包 ’ 田間植株二種花序之供碳潛能相同，惟純花序之總花數、偏雌花數 ( 率 )、採收時果數及果穗重均較帶葉花序為高，而著果率及果實性狀無差異，顯示純花序因較高的偏雌花數而提高其果實生產能力。帶葉花序因其葉片抑制側花序 (lateral inflorescence) 的同步發育而降低花數，未來應發展帶葉花序之省工除葉技術或增加純花序之發生。建議加強果樹耐候性 (resilience) 品種選育、進行逆境生理系統性研究、建立適應性模型 (climatic suitability model)、栽培技術升級 / 智慧化及調整品種與種植地域等，以茲因應。
The effects of global climate warming are reflected in temperature rising in Taiwan by 1.3℃ over the last century, which hugely aff ects growth and production of fruit trees with 27.8 days more during summer and 29.7 days lessduring winter. Both pitaya and litchi are important fruit tree crops in Taiwan, with espective dominant varieties, ‘Da Hong’ and ‘Yu Her Pau’, having excellent fruit quality. However, due to high summer temperatures stress in Taiwan, inconstant fruit production and yellowed cladodes have been observed in the red-fleshed ‘Da Hong’ pitaya. Specific environmental factors that influence yield loss and cladode damage are unknown. Moreover, in response to global warming, an increasing proportion of leafy inflorescences of the ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi frequently increase and a manual removal of leaves from such inflorescences has become a standard commercial practice whose benefits and mechanism still need confirmation. This review describes recent researches on 1) evaluating how high-temperature (HT) stress affects both fruit production and cladode yellowing of one-year-old field-grown potted ‘Da Hong’ pitaya plants under controlled conditions, and 2) determiningwhether the number of both total and female flowers, percentage of female flowers, and fruit yieldare influenced by the type of infl orescence, i.e., leafl ess or leafy infl orescences in ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi. In addition, we suggest refocusing the research and industry development to be able to respond to climate changes. Results on ‘Da Hong’ pitaya showed that blooming time was postponed 2-3 hours later within a day with HT (40/30℃ ) than in control (30/20℃ ) and fruit set, fruit size, seed weight, and peel color were strongly suppressed in the HT plants, compared with control. Furthermore, both estimated seed number and weight were positively correlated with fruit weight, suggesting that reduced seed setting and weight, aroused from incomplete fertilization in the HT plants, could result in fruit drop and smaller fruits. Although the color of the sunexposed side of cladodes remained yellow, the percentage of dry matter in the HT cladodes was not significantly different from control, indicating that their carbon assimilation rate was not reduced. Further studies are required to establish intelligent sprinkle irrigation system to cool orchards and to ascertain whether disrupted stamens or pistils, resulted by HT, lead to incomplete fertilization. Studies on the ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi showed that the type of infl orescence (i.e., leafl ess or leafy) did not affect carbon assimilation rate of bearing shoots. Leafless inflorescenceshad greater performancesin terms of both total and female flower numbers and therefore fruit number and yield at harvest, presumably due to absence of assimilate competition brought by a synchronous development of lateral inflorescences and immature leaves of a panicle. Either a labor-saving strategy of defoliation of leafy inflorescencesor an orchard management to produce more leafless inflorescences may need to be developed. In order to meet further challenges of climate changes, a systematic stress physiology research and breeding of more resilient varieties of fruit trees are recommended as well as the establishment of climatic suitability model for production areas and an upgrade of varieties and intelligent cultivation techniques.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝系|
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