|Title:||瓢蟲的飼養與在IPM之應用||Other Titles:||The rearing of coccinellid and its application in IPM||Authors:||余志儒
|Keywords:||瓢蟲;錨紋瓢蟲;小十三星瓢蟲;集體飼養;捕食率;coccinellid;lemnia biplagiata;harmonia dimidiata;group culture;predation rate||Issue Date:||Oct-2021||Publisher:||中華植物保護學會||Start page/Pages:||59-78||Source:||作物有害生物整合性管理技術之研發與應用研討會專刊||Conference:||作物有害生物整合性管理技術之研發與應用研討會
Proceedings of symposium on research and application of integrated pest management for important crops in Taiwan
生物天敵能否被量產是成敗關鍵之一，而集體飼養與代用食物是量產的兩大瓶頸，對捕食性天敵而言更是如此。本文以錨紋瓢蟲(Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz))與小十三星瓢蟲(Harmonia dimidiate (Fabricius))兩種食蚜瓢蟲為例，略述量產兩大瓶頸的研發。錨紋瓢蟲幼蟲集體飼育，以每罐(12 L)100-200隻為適宜飼育密度；添加瓦楞紙與瓦楞塑膠片隱蔽物，可減低死亡率。成蟲集體飼養之性比以2、4、6 雌配1 雄皆宜；飼育密度則依淨增殖率(R0)的表現，以每罐24 雌配6 雄為宜。東方果實蠅(Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel)卵，對於上述二種瓢蟲的幼蟲與成蟲都是有用的食物，可用人工飼料量產且技術成熟，免受三營養階層的掣肘，具有發展為代用食物配方組成的潛力。在釋放技術方面，利用生命表理論描述小十三星瓢蟲的穩定捕食率與終極捕食率，推估可能較合適的田間釋放量。由未成熟期的日齡-齡期別存活率(age-stage specific survival rate)所示，得知幼蟲自卵孵化後至全數化蛹，在15、20 及25°C下分別經33、19 及15 日，此可做為幼蟲釋放時間間隔之參考。天敵的人為釋放可與保育混用，二者可相輔相成卻難分主客，但後者可與生物多樣性、綠色保育等生態保護並行不悖，期許保育方式的生物防治在IPM中永不缺席。
Whether biological natural enemies can be mass-produced is one of the keys to success or failure, and group rearing and alternative food are the two major bottlenecks in mass production, especially for predators. This article took 2 species of coccinellds, Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz) and Harmonia dimidiata (Fab.), as examples, and outlines some attempts for both bottlenecks. In group culture of L. biplagiata larvae, with 100-200 per tank (25 L) as the suitable rearing density; and adding corrugated paper or corrugated plastic sheet as concealment can reduce larva mortality. The sex ratio of adult group culture was 2, 4, 6 females and 1 male; the rearing density is based on the net reproductive rate (R0), it is appropriate to be 24 females and 6 males per tank. The oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) eggs were useful food for the larvae and adults of above two ladybirds. This fly can be mass produced with artificial diet and the
culture technique is well done, it will be available composition of alternative food formula potentially. In field release issue, Using life table theory to describe the stable predation rate and ultimate predation rate of H. dimidiata, and estimate the quantity of field release that may be considered. As shown by the age-stage specific survival rate of the immature stage, all larva from hatching to pupation, need 33, 19 and 15 day at 15, 20 and 25 °C respectively, these can be as a reference for the release interval of larvae. The artificial release of natural enemies can be mixed with conservation. Those two can complement each other but cannot distinguish who is the major. However, the latter one can run parallel with ecological protection such as biodiversity and Green Conservation, and hope that the biological control of conservation methods will never be absent in IPM.
|Appears in Collections:||應用動物組|
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