|Title:||農產業遭受新冠肺炎 (COVID-19) 疫情之衝擊與調適||Other Titles:||The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Agriculture Industry and Its Adaptation||Authors:||楊純明
|Keywords:||新冠肺炎;2019-nCoV;COVID-19;糧食安全;糧食供應鏈;Coronavirus disease 2019;2019-nCoV;COVID-19;food security;Food supply chain||Issue Date:||Mar-2022||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||71||Journal Issue:||1||Start page/Pages:||1-9||Source:||台灣農業研究||Abstract:||
在人類文明發展歷程中出現的傳染性疾病大流行，皆對生命、經濟、社會、環境及生活造成極大衝擊，亦形成國家社會動盪不安，2019 年年底爆發延續迄今的嚴重特殊傳染性肺炎 [coronavirus disease 2019，簡稱COVID-19；又稱新冠肺炎病毒病 (new coronavirus 2019-nCoV)] 即為其一。COVID-19 的影響層面不僅廣泛而深遠，亦危害人體健康，截至目前為止全球已有至少192 個國家和地區累計報告逾1.62 億個確診個案，死亡人數超過336.7 萬且仍在持續增加中。許多證據顯示，COVID-19 牽動農產業及糧食供應鏈的運作，主要在於改變糧食供需的狀態與模式 (生產、供應、銷售)，又因為帶來行動不便、購買力下降及對最脆弱族群的更大影響，使得糧食需求和糧食安全受到極大威脅，農民也面臨更惡劣的挑戰，而社會大眾亦多有陷入民生困境景況。隨著疫情的逐日擴大，政府除了採行更加嚴厲的因應防疫措施來遏阻病毒的傳播，並當對於糧食系統有所應對。充分善用各種智慧及數位等現代化科技和政策工具，來保護民眾健康和糧食安全，持續農場動能和農民生計，以及加速農產業在困境中升級。政府更應針對糧食供需系統及不同利益 (或利害) 關係人各方面需要採取多元的策略與措施，分從技術支援、資本 (金) 貸款、行銷輔導甚至特殊紓解方案等來對症下藥、有效緩解。民生困境中尤以維持穩定的民眾日常生活為終極目標，以維護民眾營養健康的維生系統常態運作為首要。只要能守穩經濟基本面，維護糧食供應鏈的作業機制與糧食安全，必定能在漫漫疫情中維持適當局面，當COVID-19 病毒獲得控制時得以逐步恢復、扭轉乾坤創造新機。希望本文內容可提供有識者參考與利用，並引起各界響應而共同集思廣益，以利於全體國內農業從業人員研擬相關調適策略與措施。
The pandemics of infectious diseases that have emerged in the course of the development of human civilization have caused great impacts on life, economy, environment, and livelihood, and have also created social turmoil in the world. The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, also known as new coronavirus 2019-nCoV) that we are experiencing is one of them. The impact of COVID-19 is not only wide-ranging and far-reaching but also harmful to human health. So far, at least 192 countries and regions around the world have reported more than 162 million confirmed cases, and the death toll exceeds 3.367 million and is still increasing. Many pieces of evidence show that COVID-19 affects the processes of agriculture and the food supply chain, mainly due to changing the state and pattern of food supply and demand and the inconvenience of transportation, the decline in purchasing power, and the greater impact on the most vulnerable groups. Food demand and food security are greatly threatened, and farmers are facing even worse challenges. As the pandemic expands daily, many governments have adopted more stringent response measures to curb the spread of the virus, and should also respond to the food system as well. Many measurements must be implemented to protect people’s health and food security, sustain farm operation momentum and farmers’ livelihoods, and accelerate the upgrading of the agriculture industry. Those include: making full use of modern technology and policy tools, such as smart agriculture and digital technology (e.g., Information and Communication Technology, Internet of Things, Big Data, Cloud Computing and Automatic Systems), interest rate adjustment and change tariffs and subsidies. Our government should also adopt diversified strategies and measures in response to the needs of the food supply and demand system and the needs of different stakeholders, ranging from technical support, capital (fund) loans, marketing counseling to special relief programs. As long as the economic fundamentals are maintained and the operation mechanism of the production and marketing chain and food security are functioning, it will surely be able to sustain a stable situation in the long pandemic. When the COVID-19 virus is brought under control, all situations will gradually return to a normal state and new opportunities will emerge for economic, social, and personal development. Hopefully, this article can be used for reference, which might trigger the collective brainstorming from all dimensions in order to help all domestic agricultural practitioners to develop relevant adaptation stratagies and measures.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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