|Title:||蘆筍品質及產量改進方法之初步研究||Other Titles:||Preliminary studies onf the Improvements of Quality and Yield of Asparagus||Authors:||林昭雄
|Issue Date:||Jan-1976||Publisher:||臺灣省農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||中國園藝 v.14(3-4)||Start page/Pages:||34-48||Source:||臺灣區第一屆蘆筍學術討論會試驗研究報告(上卷)||Abstract:||
7. 綠蘆筍之株距大小，據第一年試驗結果，以20 cm區產量較高，30 cm, 40 cm區次之，但嫩莖平均種以30 cm爲較大。
8. 臺灣冬季低溫不夠，蘆筍植株未能全部進入休眠狀態，如僅用很能制灌水方法，或折莖方法人工控制其休眠效果不大。就本試驗供試8種藥劑而言，以2% Gramoxan, 5% Casoron, 20%硫酸錏，10%尿素，1%MH-30溶液爲最有效，前兩者藥效較快，但濃度過高則有抑制新嫩莖生育之現象；後三者藥效較爲緩慢，但對新嫩莖之發育有利，爲蘆筍有望之人爲誘導休眠劑。
9.本試驗供試11種殺草劑，對於白綠蘆筍幼莖有發現藥害現象者，有Casoron, TOK E-25, Flight A, Amizol。就殺草效果而言，以每公頃1公斤Diuron或Monuron較有希望。
14. 綠蘆筍之營養價值比白蘆筍爲高，據分析結果採收直後之白蘆筍每100公克嫩莖之維他命C含量爲29.155 mg，而綠蘆筍含有44.636 mg，比白蘆筍高53.10%。再者，綠蘆筍除供冷凍製罐加工用外，又適宜作新鮮蔬菜消費，因此臺灣應多獎勵生產綠蘆筍供國人消費，以提高國民營養。
The purposes of those studios were to ascertain the factors of affecting the quality and yield of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and to establish a reasonable cultural methods in the Tropics and to develop the asparagus industry in Taiwan.
There were many ways to improve the asparagus quality and yield such as through genetic factors cultual physiological factors and post-harvest physiological factors. Five experiments including (1) Ecological observation of new varieties in the Tropics, (2) Improvement of cultural practices, (3) Effect of artificial dormancy, (4) Plant injury of herbicides. (5) Post-harvest handling practices were carried out at Fengshan Trop. Hort. Expt. Sta. The experimental results were summarized as follows:
1. With regard to the productivity of variety used, UC309, UC711, UC72 were high yield varieties, NJ254, NJ265 UC500W were medium, and NJ107, NJ305 NJ304, UC500W were low yield varieties.
2. UC711 was considered as the most promising variety in this trial for white asparagus due to its high yielding and uniform, medium-sized spears.
8. UC309 was considered as the most promising variety in this trial for green asparagus due to its larger spears with dark green color and high yielding
4. The distribution of yield would be declined from the beginning of harvesting and this inclination would be significant and rapid if no stems reserved during the harvesting period.
5. The yield of white asparagus in the plot with reserving stems after 30 days harvesting was higher than those in plots with reserving stems after 15 days, 40 days, 15 days harvesting or without reserving stems. As to the number of reserving stems, 3 stems seemed to be better than 2 ones.
6. As to the green asparagus the stem-reserving within one month after harvesting would not affect greatly on the yield of late stage.
7. Spacing study of green asparagus in the first year showed that the highest yield was spaced at 20 cm., and 30 cm., 40 cm. spacings were next in order. However, the average weight of spears was the highest from 30 cm spacings in rows.
8. Since the dormancy in the tropics was a chief problem due to insufficient cold in winter, some possible measures of inducing artificial dormancy were devised in the experiment. The effect of limiting irrigation alone or breaking stems were not effective, whereas 2% Gramoxan 5% Casoron, 20% Ammonium sulfate, 10% Urea, and 1% MH-30 solution were effective. The first two chemicals had rapid effect, but the development of new shoots would be inhibited at higher concentration, whereas the last three ones had slow effect but helpful to the development of new shoots.
9. Casoron, TOK E-25, Flight A and Amizol of 11 herbicides used were found to have injuries on both green and white shoots 1 kg of Diuron or Monuron per hectare would be promising for weed control.
10. The post-harvest handling practices had great effects on the quality of harvested asparagus. The ascorbic acid content, the internal quality of asparagus showed a significant change in the spears stored in room temperature conditions even in short time. Based on the results of analysis 12.83% of ascorbic acid content of white asparagus were reduced after 3 hours storing in room, and 13.30% of ascorbic acid content of green asparagus were reduced after e hours storing in room. Hence, it is very important to deliver harvested asparagus immediately to canneries for processing to raise quality of asparagus.
11. The temperature of holding had much influenced on the deterioration of asparagus quality. The ascorbic acid content of white spears stored at room temperature for 2 days was only 46.82% of that stored at 2℃. Moreover, the effect of 2℃ cold storage was better than that of 5℃ cold storage. Therefore, it is very important to cool harvested asparagus at 2℃ as rapidly as possible or make precooling to remove the field heat of harvested spears and maintain at the conditions of low temperature to inhibit the deterioration of quality asparagus.
12. Much deterior after of internal quality was also caused under the different conditions after long time of holding. Green asparagus stored at 5℃ for 15 days lost 75.29% of its ascorbic acid, at 2℃ it lost 57.05% and at -27℃ it lost 49.28%. Hence, green asparagus is recommended to process as quick frozen products.
13. In addition to the changes of internal quality as mentioned above, the external quality such as freshness, crispness, length and weight of spears, discoloration, shrivel and feathering would be changed too. These changes could be greatly affected by water and temperature of holding. If stored spears with the butts in water or provided high relative humidity above 90% in addition to the cold air alone was considered helpful to external quality.
14. The ascorbic acid content of green asparagus was 53.10% higher than that of white one. Moreover, green asparagus can be used for fresh market in addition to freezing and canning. Therefore it is recommended to produce more green asparagus for local consumption to raise national nutrition.
|Appears in Collections:||蔬菜系|
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