|Title:||貯藏溫度對採收後‘新雪’梨果皮黑變及果肉品質之影響||Other Titles:||Effect of Storage Temperature on Skin Blackening and Flesh Quality in Harvested Fruit of Japanese Pear ‘Shinsetsu’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nak.var. Shinsetsu)||Authors:||郭純德
|Keywords:||果皮黑變;表皮燙斑;生理障礙;寒害;日本梨;‘新雪’梨;果實品質;貯藏溫度;fruit skin blackening;superficial scald;physiological disorder;chilling injury;Japanese pear;‘Shinsetsu’ pear;fruit quality;storage temperature||Issue Date:||Dec-2005||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第117號||Start page/Pages:||65-78||Source:||園產品採後處理技術之研究與應用研討會專刊||Conference:||園產品採後處理技術之研究與應用研討會
Proceedings of A Symposium on Research and Application of Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops
梨山地區的雪梨採收後，貯藏在1℃及5℃下30 週，其腐爛率低，都在5%以下；在9℃ 下，腐爛率增加為13%；而13℃者，則大幅增加至35%以上。至於失重率，1℃者約7%，在5 及9℃均為11%，而13℃者高達24%。貯藏溫度愈高，貯藏期間愈長，腐爛及失重情形愈加明顯。雪梨果實在採收後及貯藏之初，其果皮完全正常。但低溫(1、5 及9℃)貯藏2至6 週後，果皮即呈現不規則形狀黑色斑點及區塊，中央色澤較深，果皮黑變面積會隨著低溫期間的延長而擴展增大。雪梨在1、5、9、13℃貯藏室中30 週，就果皮黑變的果實數百分比、以及表皮黑變面積百分比而言，以1℃最嚴重，5℃和9℃次之，13℃更少。低溫貯藏導致梨果表皮產生黑變斑塊的特徵，此結果應為低溫造成的寒害。同時雪梨貯藏期間，1℃者失重最少、而黑變果實數百分比及黑斑面積最多，而13℃者失重最多，但是其黑變果實數百分比及黑斑面積卻是最少。果實的失重似乎與果皮的黑變斑塊發生，應無直接密切關係。在冷藏室(1、5、9、13℃)中的雪梨果實，經過14 週貯藏，其果肉品質之硬度，隨著貯藏期間之增加而逐漸遞減，並且隨著貯藏溫度之提高，果肉硬度降低得更快、更多。果肉糖度的變化，隨著貯藏期間之增加而逐漸遞減。同時，果肉糖度也隨著貯藏溫度之提高，而有降低之趨勢。
The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of storage temperature on flesh quality and skin blackening in harvested fruits of Japanese pear ‘Shinsetsu’ produced in central Taiwan. After stored at 1, 5, 9, and 15 ℃ for 30 weeks, the percent of rotting ant weight loss in sampling fruits were both increased when refrigerating temperature decreased. The percent of rotting and weight loss of fruits stored at 1℃ were below 5% and 7%, respectively. It was suggested the shelf-life duration of post-harvest pear could be maintained for up to 30 weeks at low temperature (1-5℃). However, fruit skin blackening disorder (like superficial scald) development at the epidermal tissue was observed after 2, 4, and 6 weeks storage at 1, 5, and 9℃, and was heavily reduced commercial value. This physiological disorder was only occurred at skin region, the flesh tissue was remained normal throughout storage period. It was found when storage temperature decrease, the fruit skin blackening scald development could extend to a greater extent. It could be concluded that the fruit skin blackening of postharvest pear was a physiological disorder, chilling injury induced by low temperature. The more weight loss the less skin blackening scald was found when stored at 1 and 5 ℃. It was also observed that the percent of weight loss had no direct effect on the scald development in epidermal tissues of fruits. The firmness and total soluble solids content of flesh in harvested fruits were both slowly decreased, as storage temperature increased and storage duration extended to 14 weeks.
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