|Title:||五加皮藥材之藥學探討||Other Titles:||The Pharmaceutical Research of Wu-Chia-Pi||Authors:||謝文全
|Issue Date:||Mar-1999||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第87號||Start page/Pages:||125-159||Source:||1999藥用植物之開發與利用研討會論文集||Conference:||1999藥用植物之開發與利用研討會
Proceedings of the Symposium on Development and Utilization of Medicinal Plants 1999
五加皮藥材之來源植物甚多且復雜，一般文獻皆以細柱五加Acanthopanax listylu W.W. SMITH、無梗五加A. sessiliflorus (RUPR. et MAXIM.) SEEM、刺五加A. senticous (RUPR. et MAXIM.) HARMS、糙葉五加A. henryi (OLIV.) HARMS、輪葉五加A. verticillatus HOO為其代表，且為浸製五加皮酒之原料，時常飲之有強壯之功，為吾人酒宴乃至日常保健之飲料，關係國民健康至鉅。近年來報載五加皮酒有毒之說，甚受全國人士之重視與關懷。據那琦初步研究結果，南五加皮之原植物為五加屬植物無毒，北五加皮之原植物為杠柳有毒，隨後甘偉松等嘗著五加皮之藥用植物學考察。關於台灣地區所產本屬植物之本草學、生藥學之研究尚未見正式報告，著者因而進行本研究。
著者就採得之標本與市場品，進行五加之本草考察，以闡明其藥名、形態、種類、產地、性味、功能、修治、方用、禁忌、釀酒等歷史淵源，更而進行五加屬藥用植物等藥學之探討，以闡明其分類關係，五加藥材部分學者分隸於Acanthopanax MIQ.，Elentherococcus MAXIM.，Evodiopanax NAKAI，今統歸隸於五加屬植物，我國產30餘種植物予以索引敘述，並分辨刺五加(A. senticous HARMS)與杠柳(Periploca sepium BUNGE)比較解剖組織研究，以求証其真偽，有助於藥材之成分、藥理毒性及臨床應用等植物資源之開發。
Wu-Chia-Pi as a medical material, according to medical literature, can be derived from and referred to the dried root bark of those various plants of Acanthopanax species of Araliaceae, Family. The Chinese Pent¡¦ao lists Wu-Chia-Pi in Shen-Nung Pents’ao-Ching as Hsia-Ping under the category of Wood. Since the T’ang Dynasty Hsin-Hsiou-Pents¡¦ao moved it as Sang-Ping under the category of Wood, many schools of Pents¡¦ao in the succeeding dynasties, such as Kai-Pao, Chia-You, Tu-Ching, Cheng-Lay and Chang-Pian have all made mention of Wu-Chia-Pi, which has since ancient times been used to get rid of rheumatism, enhance the sinews and bones, activate blood circulation, remove blood clots, treat wind colds waist pain, impotence, and such symptoms as broken bones and injuries.
The plant sources of the medical material of Wu-Chia-Pi are quite numerous and complicated. The regular Wu-Chia-Pi can be represented by Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W. SMITH, A. sessiliflorus SEEM, A. senticous HARMS, A. henryi HARMS and A. verticilatus Hoo, which can also serve as the raw materials for brewing Wu-Chia-Pi wine, which can function to strengthen the body if it is often taken and can also serve as healthful drink in banquets or in our daily lives; therefore, it has much to do with the health of the people. In recent years, there have been some newspaper report about the theories that Wu-Chia-Pi wine has poison in it, making it of great importance and concern by the Chinese people. As a result, several years ago the Legislative Yuan through the Monopoly Bureau prohibited the making and marketing of this wine. According to the study of Dr. Na-Chi, the plant of Nan-Wu-Chia-Pi is the poisonless Acanthopanax genus, whereas the original plant of the Pe-Wu-Chia-Pi is the poisonous Periploca sepium. Later professor, Wei-Song-Kang and others tried to investigate the medi-cal material of Wu-Chia-Pi. As for the locally grown plants of this genus in Taiwan areas, there is still no formal report about the science of Pents’ao and the science of raw medical for such plants, promptimg this author to conduct this research.
Using the collected samples and those products sold on the market, the author conducted the investigation of Wu-Chia Pents’ao in order to elucidate the medical names, patterns, varieties, places of origin, characteristic flavors, functions, and such wine brewing as the historical derivation. Furthermore, explorations is msde of the medical science of the plant genus of Wu-Chia in order to elucidate its categorical relationship. Scholars have categorized the part of Wu-Chia medical material into Acanthopanax MIQ, Eleutherococcus MAXIM, Evodiopanax NAKAT Now, it is categorized under the plant genus of Wu-Chia, in which there are some 30 kinds of plants grown in our country, which are placed in index for description. In addition to this, distinction is made between A. senticous HARMS and Periploca sepium BGE in order to compare their analytical compostion, to substantiate the true and the false ones, which will be helpful to the understanding of the ingredients of the medical material, the medicinal toxicity, and the resource development of those plants in clinical applications.
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