|Title:||被覆PE塑膠布對隧道式栽培洋香瓜生長之影響||Other Titles:||Effects of Polyethylene Plastic Cover on Growth of Cantaloupe in Row Tunnel Cultivation||Authors:||楊純明
|Keywords:||被覆材質;塑膠布;洋香瓜;隧道式栽培;生長;氣象環境;Covering material;Plastic sheet;Cantaloupe;Row tunnel cultivation;Growth;Climatic environment||Issue Date:||6-Sep-1997||Publisher:||中華農業氣象學會||Journal Volume:||4||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||145-152||Source:||中華農業氣象||Abstract:||
臺灣地區的洋香瓜產地集中於臺南縣一帶，多以隧道式簡易設施栽培，惟被覆材質混雜，對洋香瓜植株生長影響不一。本文硏究旨在探討不同被覆塑膠布(polyethylene)材質對洋香瓜一期作栽培隧道式簡易設施内環境及植株生長之影響，並釐清設施内環境因子之變化及其可能效應。田間試驗在臺南縣東山鄉進行，根據試驗結果，不同被覆塑膠布材質將改變隧道式簡易設施内光輻射，一般透明聚乙烯 塑膠布(PE)及具濾除除紫外線效果聚乙烯塑膠布(UV-cut)設施内上方測得之光輻射頻譜(350〜1100 nm)仍類似於日照頻譜，惟其各波長之輻射量均較低。顯示此兩種被覆塑膠布材質具有反射或吸收日照光輻射的功能，尤其穿透UV-cut塑膠布之光輻射紫外光波段(<400 nm)已被濾除。不同被覆材質亦改變隧道式簡易設施内氣溫、相對濕度、土溫。從整體比較，塑膠布覆蓋提高了設施内的氣溫，而PE塑膠布覆蓋者又稍高於UV-cut塑膠布者。相對濕度表現則相反，塑膠布覆蓋降低了設施内濕度，而不同被覆材間之差異未達顯著水準。因爲畦面鋪蓋黑色聚乙烯塑膠布，設施内土溫並未因塑膠布覆蓋而顯著提升高於室外土溫。不同塑膠布材質對隧道式簡易設施内洋香瓜植株地上部的生長有不等的影響，從播種後34日起單位葉面積已呈現差異：UV-cut塑膠布内生長之洋香瓜單位葉面積爲14.3 x 10-3 m2 leaf1，PE塑膠布者爲11.8 x 10 3 m2 leaf1，因此UV-cut塑膠布設施内植株葉面積明顯高於PE塑膠布設施値株。此後單位葉面積持續降低，而PE被覆材質下的洋香瓜植株葉片數則自播種後49日起減少，使其葉面憤至收穫前均低於UV-cut材質者。UV-cut塑膠布設施内的洋香瓜生長較爲旺盛，無論葉片或莖稈均累積較高乾物重，且其洋香瓜果實產量高於PE塑膠布設施者達4.4倍，無論大粒、中粒或小粒的數量均顯著地高於PE塑膠布設施生長之植株，而且畸形粒又較少。
The major production area of cantaloupe in Taiwan is located in Tainan County. Row tunnel cultivation is the primary technique employed by the farmers, yet the covering material is mixed with the various polyethylene and nonwoven fabrics. As different covering plastic materials may exert varied impacts on microclimate under tunnel and growth of cantaloupe, it is the objective of this research to clarify their effects leading to improving the cultural practices. Field experiment was conducted on Tungsan, Tainan County in the first (spring) crop of 1997. Results indicated that patterns of spectral irradiance measured at the top of row tunnels under different covering plastic sheests were similar to the outdoors, hut the amount of irradiance was less. Tunnels covered with the UV-cut plastic sheet had lower irradiance than that of PE plastic ones, and wavelengths shorter than 400 nm were filtered out after transmitting through the UV-cut plastic. Different covering materials also changed the air (dry-bulb) temperature, relative humidity, and soil temperature measured in row tunnels. The air temperature measured under UV-cut plastic cover was lower while relative humidity and earth temperature had no significant difference between these two coverings. Cataloupe grown in the UV-cut plastic covering tunnels had more bigger leaf and larger leaf area，hence dry weights of leaf and stem were greater than those of PE-covering plants. At harvest, the UV-cut plastic covering tunnels had better yield and lesser irregular fruits than the PE plastic covering tunnels.
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