|Title:||氮肥與化學藥劑對果樹褐根病菌之影響與田間病害防治||Other Titles:||Effects of nitrogen fertilizers and chemical fungicides on control of brown root rot of tree fruits and grapes caused by Phellinus noxius||Authors:||蔡志濃
|Keywords:||褐根病菌(Phellinus noxius);氮肥;尿素;淹水;殺菌劑;病害防治;Brown root rot;Phellinus noxius;nitrogen fertilizers;urea;flooding;fungicides;disease control||Issue Date:||Jun-2008||Publisher:||中華民國植物病理學會||Journal Volume:||17||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||119-126||Source:||植物病理學會刊||Abstract:||
由Phellinus noxius引起之褐根病為我國重要之木本植物病害，造成上百種植物立枯，為尋求防治策略，本文首先探討不同氮肥種類對褐根病發病之影響，五種2-3年生果樹幼苗（枇杷、柿子、梅、楊桃及梨）施用四種不同之氫肥處理（0.5 0.5 g/L硫酸銨、0.5 g/L台肥5號複合肥料、0.5 g/L硝酸鈣及1 g/L尿素），結果顯示氮肥種類會影響人工接種果樹幼苗之病勢進展與發病率，然作物品種對發病率及病勢進展之影響更大。除枇杷外，施用尿素((NH4)2CO3)之處理的發病率最低；楊桃與梨幼苗施用尿素後均未發病；施用硝酸鈣(Ca (NO3)2)、硫酸銨((NH4)2SO4)及5號複合肥料之處理的發病率相對較高，病勢進展亦較快；然無論何種氮肥處理，接種褐根病菌之枇杷幼苗在3個月內均會死亡，而柿樹在6個月內也全部死亡，顯示肥料只能略為延緩感病作物之病勢進展。此外，探討淹水、尿素及化學藥劑對褐根病菌在植物病組織內之存活影響，將人工接種褐根病菌之枇杷枝條(2-2.5 cm diam.)埋於土中，結果顯示病菌在土壤淹水處理的情形下存活能力最差，存活能力低於6天；土壤添加2 g/L尿素處理者低於10天，0.4 g/L尿素處理者為2個月；0.4-2.0 g/L三泰芬可濕性粉劑(5% triadimefon)與撲克拉乳劑(25% prochloraz)在4個月內亦可完全殺死枝條內的病菌；在添加0.4 g/L碳酸鈣的土壤中，其存活力不超過10個月；而對照處理在2年後仍可檢出活體病菌。進而於南投水里地區一發病的葡萄園進行病害田間防治離試驗，結果以每株施用10 g三泰芬＋10 g尿素＋10 g碳酸鈣之處理（60株）最好，處理後2.5年期間並無植株死亡，樹幹生育最佳；而施用109撲克拉＋109尿素＋109碳酸鈣之處理(55株)亦甚佳，處理後6個月內有2株死亡（死亡率3.6%）外，之後並無植株死亡；而對照處理42株，試驗期間仍有6株死亡（死亡率14.3%）。
Brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius is a serious disease of more than hundred species of woody plants in Taiwan. Pot trials were carried out to determine the effects of different types of nitrogen fertilizers on disease development, 2-3-year-old fruit seedlings, of loquat, persimmon, plum, carambora and pear were artificially inoculated with P. noxius and planted in pot soil (pH 5.5), amended with urea (1 g/L soil), calcium nitrate (0.5 g/L soil), ammonia sulfate (0.5 g/L soil) or Taifei complex No. 5 (16-8-12) (0.5 g/L soil). Results showed that all of the inoculated loquat and persimmon seedlings were killed by P. noxius within 3 and 6 months, respectively for all treatments, whereas none of the pear and carambora seedlings were killed by the pathogen in the urea treatment after inoculation for 6 months. Another study was conducted to determine survival of P. noxius in infected stems of loquat buried in soil amended with fungicides, fertilizers, or by flooding. Results showed that treatment of soil with urea at 2.0 g/L soil or flooding of soil for 10 days completely eliminated the pathogen in the stems. For fungicide-amended soils, both 5% triadimefon and 25% prochloraz at 0.4-2 g/L soil could completely kill the pathogen 4 months after treatment. A field trial was carried out on 3-5 year-old grapes in a field naturally infested with P. noxius in Shuili, Nantou. Results showed that soil drenching every 3 months with the solution containing 10 g 5% triadimefon+10 g urea+10 g CaCO3 in 1 L of water was the most effective treatment with no infected grapevines developed in all the 60 plants after treating for 2.5 years. In contrast, 6 of 42 (14.3%) tested plants in the untreated control were killed by P. noxius in 2.5 years.
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