|Title:||台灣文心蘭種苗病毒驗證制度之建立與展望||Other Titles:||Phytosanitary certification program of oncidium seedlings and its future prospect to the development of ornamental industry in Taiwan||Authors:||張清安
|Keywords:||文心蘭;蘭花;病毒病;種苗;驗證;Oncidium;orchids;virus disease;seedling;phytosanitary certification||Issue Date:||Sep-2003||Publisher:||中華民國植物病理學會||Journal Volume:||12||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||141-148||Source:||植物病理學會刊||Abstract:||
文心蘭(Oncidium spp.)乃我國近年全力發展之花卉產業，由於有利之氣候條件與進步之栽培管理技術，文心蘭切花之品質已獲得國際之認同，特別深獲日本市場消費者之喜愛。文心蘭之栽培雖較其他蘭花粗放，但管理過程中仍然會受某些特定病蟲害之侵襲而遭致損失。常見之病害包括病毒病、細菌性軟腐病及疫病等，其中病毒病之感染由於無法治療，因此特別受到關切。加上現階段文心蘭種苗之繁殖乃以無性分芽或組織培養方式為中，若親本已感染病毒，則所繁殖之後代種苗將會全數帶毒，因而擴人蔓延之速度與影響之層面。截至目前有齒舌蘭輪斑病毒(Odontoglossum ringspot virus, ORSV)、蕙蘭嵌紋病毒(Cymbidium mosaic virus, CyMV)、胡瓜嵌紋病毒(Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV)及番茄斑萎病毒(Tomato spotted wilt virus, TSWV)等四種病毒曾經被發現可以感染文心蘭，其中以前二者分佈最普遍，對產業之影響最顯著。單獨感染ORSV之文心蘭多數品種均不產生明顯病徵，只有少數品種會出現輕微嵌紋徵狀。感染CyMV之文心蘭葉背會產生斷續深褐色壞疽型條斑。此二病毒均只能藉由機械傷口方式傳染，尚未發現可傳播之媒介昆蟲。二者若發生複合感染，則會造成嚴重嵌紋與萎縮之病徵，植株生育異常，嚴重影響切花之產量與品質。研究顯示由已感染病毒之親本進行分生組織繁殖乃造成近年來我國文心蘭病毒病趨於普遍之主要原因。本研究室根據文心蘭病毒可能之感染途徑，已規劃出符合現行產業界所適用，而且能避免病毒傳播之種苗生產流程，並設計病毒偵測之監控點，以保證各繁殖階段之種苗能免於病毒之感染。晚近動植物防疫檢疫局更將病毒檢查與此繁殖流程加以結合，建立國內首創之種苗病毒驗證制度，於2003年3月12日公告實施。希望此起源並因而造就荷蘭成為國際花卉王國之種苗驗證制度能輔導我國業者產出合乎國際標準之種苗，進一步提升我國文心蘭產業之競爭力。
Oncidium orchid is considered a potential commodity in the ongoing development of ornamental industry in Taiwan. The quality of Taiwanese oncidium cut flowers is highly appraised in Japanese floral auction market. The number and acreage of oncidium orchid nurseries have increased in Taiwan during the last decade of the 20th century. Although oncidium industry has been developing prosperously, there are problems need to be solved. One of the concerns that affect most growers is the constant availability of high quality virus-free seedlings. In the past, tissue culture derived seedlings, the only propagation materials for oncidium orchids in Taiwan, were mainly imported from Thailand. However, many investigations have shown that those imported seedlings were frequently found with unacceptable virus infection rate. Nurseries growing these seedlings always suffered significantly from economical losses. Our growers, therefore, have increased their dependences on domestic tissue culture companies to supply oncidium seedlings. Virus diseases have become less problematic but still remain. There are four viruses, i.e. Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), Cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) known to infect oncidium orchids in the literature. In Taiwan and many orchid exporting countries, ORSV and CyMV are considered the most widely spread and economically important viruses. Besides infecting mother stocks, which are the major sources for virus dissemination, both ORSV and CyMV can easily contaminate orchid seedlings during tissue culture processing. This is because of their unusual in vitro stability. In order to produce high quality virus-free seedlings, we have developed an oncidium seedling propagation and certification program, in which on-site inspection and laboratory virus indexing are integrated to ensure phytosanitary production of oncidium tissue cultured seedlings. On March 12, 2002, the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) officially issued, for immediate implementation, the "Rules and Regulations for Certification of Virus-Free Oncidium Hybrids ". This is the very first phytosanitary certification program in the history of plant industry in Taiwan. Phytosanitary certification has been implemented for more than sixty years in the Netherlands resulting in strong international recognition of the Dutch floral industry. By enforcing the seedling certification program, we hope that the quality of Taiwanese oncidium seedlings will be improved and recognized and their international competitiveness will thus be increased.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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