|Title:||豌豆萎凋病之發生與防治||Other Titles:||The occurrence of pea wilt and its control in Taiwan||Authors:||林益昇
|Keywords:||豌豆萎凋病;根腐病;生理小種;變異;存活;種子帶菌;土壤添加物;綜合防治;Fusarium wilt and root rot of peas;physiological race;cultural variant;survival;seedborne;soil amendment;integrated control||Issue Date:||Jun-1991||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||36-44||Conference:||土壤病原生態與防治研討會專刊||Abstract:||
本省豌豆主要採冬季裡作之糊籽栽培（冬季豌豆），與少數在其他季節種植於旱田採立支柱栽培者（夏季豌豆）。幼苗期發生由Fusariwn sotani f. sp. pisi (Fsp)引起根部腐爛，葉片黃化，以及偶而維管束呈磚紅色病變的根腐病，罹病株並不會死亡。進入開花期的成株，則發生由F. axysporurn f. sp.pisi (Fop)引起半側葉片黃化，維管束褐化，終至萎凋死亡的萎凋病，尤以夏季豌豆發生最為嚴重。萎凋病比根腐病重要。在中、南部豌豆栽培區，Fop race 2及5的分化。前者分佈較廣，出蹺頻率較高。Fop race 2在培養慕上易變異成站膜型菌株，其毒性（virulence）與存活能力皆遜於野生種的胞叢型菌株。在冬季豌豆田，Fop race 2分佈於耕犛層，受兩期水稻輸作淹水措施的影響，在土壤中之數目會下降至無法偵知，使隨後種植的豌豆不致嚴重被害。但土壤中的病原菌密度又會隨時間逐漸回升。其接種源可能源自豌豆種子，水稻及雜草根部或土壤顆粒中殘存者。使用種子保護劑，如得恩地75％可溼性粉劑（2 g/Kg種子）拌入等量的粘著劑 (graphite)，對冬季碗豆具有初期保護作用，但對夏季豌豆無效。在夏季豌豆田使用氰氮化鈣（300Kg/ha）則具有抑制萎凋病之效果。
In Taiwan, most garden peas were cultivated normally from November to February in the rice-rice-peas rotation fileds (winter peas) and also, planted either from late August to December or from February to May in many dryland fields at different elevations all over the island (summer peas). Pea seedlings in both seasons were suffered with a root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) showing the s3mptoms of root rot, leaf yellowing and occassionally, a red vascular discoLoration. 1he diseased plants were usually not dead. When the pea plants grew up to the flowering stage, they would be damaged by a wilt caused by F. oxysporwn f. sp. pisi (Fop) with leaf yellowing on one side (lateral wilt), vascular discoloration and wilt symptoms. The pea wilt was the most important disease of peas, especially, severe in summer peas. The isolates of Fop were identified as races 2 and 5. Fop race 2 was more frequently isolated from the major commercial cultivar, TC-1l. The cultural variant, a pionnotal type of Fop race 2 was easily obtained from the FDA culture of wild type (sporodochial type). The wild type isolates were highly pathogenic to peas and survived well in soils, while the variants were less pathogenic and survived poor in soil. In a winter peas field, Fop race 2 was found mostly in the soil of tillage layer and was able to be reduced to the non-detectable level after rotating with two crcps of paddy rice and hence, the pea wilt was reduced. However, the field was coloniz.ed with the pathogen after growing a crop of peas. The inoculum probably came from the infested seeds, weeds and soil particles. Seed treatment with thiram plus graphite (2 g/Kg seed) could protect the winter peas at early stage, but not for the summer peas. Using calcium cyanamide at the rate of 300 Kg/ha as soil amendment could reduce the pea wilt of summer peas.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.