|Title:||Control of Sclerotinia Rot of Sunflower and Chrysanthemum||Other Titles:||向日葵及菊花菌核病的防治||Authors:||Wen-Shi Wu
|Keywords:||Scierotinia sclerotiorum;chemical control;biocontrol;integrated control;菌核病菌;化學防治;生物防治;綜合防治||Issue Date:||Jun-1991||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||45-55||Conference:||土壤病原生態與防治研討會專刊||Abstract:||
Benomyl and DCNA were able to inhibit the growth of Scierotinia scierotiorum in cultural medium and able to control scierotinia rot of sunflower in field. Vinclozolin expressed bettei effectiveness of disease control on sunflower than DCNA and iprodione. Vinclozolin inhibited the germination of ascospore completely and caused the ascospore losing its cytoplasm. When soil treated with calcium cyanamide, the survival of scierotia declined and the disease on chrysanthemum was reduced significantly due to the amount of apothecium was reduced. Trichoderina viride isolated from decayed sclerotium was able to infect S. scierotiorurn and produced some inhibitory substance(s) to inhibit the growth of the studied pathogen. Spraying the spore suspension of T viride onto sunflower was able to reduce the disease rate significantly, but was unable to increase the yield of sunflower, Soil solarization by mulching the field soil with black polyethylene sheet was an effective method to reduce the amount of apothecium significantly. Consequently, the percent of disease was significantly reduced in 1986 but not in 1987. The temperature on the top soil at solar energy-treated field was 10℃ higher than untreated soil, but 5℃ higher when the soil temperature was measured at the depth of 5 cm from the soil surface. Scierotia lost their vitality when the soil was wet and the soil temperature was raised to 45℃ for four hours a day for four days.
Benomyl及DCNA在培養基中可以抑制菌核病菌的生長，同時也可在田間防治向日葵的菌核病；但vinclozolin防治向日葵菌核病的效果比DCNA及iprodione還好，vinclozolin在低濃度下即可完全抑制菌核病菌子囊孢子的發芽，並導致子囊孢子的細胞質流失。當土壤以烏肥處理，存活在土壤中的菌核會因而降低其活性，於是菊花菌核病相隨的就因子囊盤數量的減少而減少。由分解的菌核上所分離到的Trichodenna viride，可以感染菌核病菌，並可以所產生的抑制性物質抑制菌核病菌之生長；將T. viride的分生孢子噴灑在向日葵上，可以顯著地降低病害嚴重度，但是卻未明顯地增產。利用黑色塑膠布覆蓋土面的太陽能處理，可以顯著地降低子囊盤的數目；因太陽能處理的土面溫度比未處理者高10℃，而土面下5公分處的溫度，處理者也比未處理者高5℃；菌核在潮濕的土壤時，當溫度每天有4小時高達45℃時，連續4天，於是就會喪失活力；所以種在以太陽能處理過之土壤中的菊花，其罹患菌核病的數量顯著地降低。
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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