|Title:||利用土壤添加物防治作物之土壤傳播性病害||Other Titles:||Control of soilborne crop diseases by soil amendments||Authors:||黃振文
|Keywords:||土傳病害;土壤添加物;S-H混合物;SF-21混合物;soilborne crop diseases;formulated soil amendment;S-H mixture;SF-21 mixture||Issue Date:||Jun-1991||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||113-123||Conference:||土壤病原生態與防治研討會專刊||Abstract:||
利用有機添加物可以補充地力，維繫作物的生產外，亦可抑制作物之土壤傳播性病害的發生。大豆綠肥、甘蔗葉渣、苜蓿粉、闊葉樹皮、雞糞、甘藍及芥菜葉渣和魚粉等是常用的有機添加物。至於無機添加物有矽酸爐渣、碳酸鈣、硫磺粉、硫酸鈣及化學肥料等。由於農田經常存在多種根部病害問題，且為了有效利用有機與無機添加物彼此間的優點。因此，結合有機與無機添加物以發展「合成土壤添加物」是綜合防治作物根部病害的一種策略。目前，S-H與SF-21混合物是兩種已發展成功的合成土壤添加物。S-H混合物可以防治西瓜蔓割病，蘿蔔黃葉病，芥菜根瘤病、豌豆萎凋病，胡瓜猝倒病與疫病及番茄青枯病。而SF-21混合物則可防治由Rhizoctonia solani，Pythium aphanidermatum及Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans三者所引起的溼地松苗猝倒病。
When the soil elements essential for efficient plant nutrition and economic production are low in availability or are not in balance, soil amendments and chemical fertilizers are required. The use of soil amendments to intensify microbiological activity and enhance competition among soil microorganisms results in Lysis of inoculum structure of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, soil amendments are also frequently recommended to prevent the increase of sollborne plant pathogens in cultivated soil. Since 1979, formulation of soil amendments has been devisd to control root-infecting fungi with minimal amounts of amendments or to alleviate root disease problem with amendments used as an integrated part of an economical, feasible disease control program. Two formulated soil amendments, S-H and SF-21 mixtures, have been successfully developed for controlling soilborne crop diseases. S-H mixture, consisted of 4.4% bagasse, 8A% rice husks, 4.25% oyster shell powder, 8.25% urea, 1.04% potassium nitrate, 13.16% calcium superphosphate, and 60.5% mineral ash (slag), has been used to effectively control fusarial wilt of watermelon, radish, and pea, club root of crucifers, pythium damping-off and phytophthora blight of cucumber, and bacterial wilt of tomato in Taiwan. Furthermore, SF-21 mixture, consisted of 750 g milled pine bark, 35 g (NH4)2SO4, 10 g triple superphosphate, 30 g CaCI2, 25 g KCI, 150 g A12(SO4)3 and 750 ml glycerine (10%, v/v), was able to significantly reduce damping-off of slash pine caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans, and promoted growth of pine seedlings in the United States.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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