|Title:||Pseudomonas tolaasii拮抗性細菌及其防治洋菇細菌性褐菇病之研究||Other Titles:||Psedomonas tolassii Antagonistic Bacteria and Their Use in the control of Mushroom Bacterial Blotch||Authors:||廖英明
|Keywords:||洋菇;洋菇細菌性褐菇病||Issue Date:||Sep-1981||Publisher:||臺灣洋菇雜誌社||Journal Volume:||5||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||74-84||Source:||臺灣洋菇||Abstract:||
由柑桔園之根圈土壤及廢棄之菇床覆土分離所得之細菌菌株P5及O13，對洋菇褐菇病細菌（Pseudomonas tolaasii）具有拮抗能力。此二菌株經電子顥微鏡觀察及生理特性試驗均被鑑定為Pseudomonas spp.，且對洋菇菌絲生長無害，對菸草之葉脈接種不具過敏性反應。將此二菌株置於經高壓殺菌之覆土中，P5菌株於12℃培養75天後則法重新分離，O13菌株在90天後無法重分離到。該二拮抗菌生在適溫為16～24℃。在土壤含水量10％以下不適生存，而含水量在20％以上時，則保存120天以上仍有30％以上的生存率。拮抗菌的拮抗能力在培養基中有減弱的現象，當以不同基質保存時，以保存於經消毒後之原分離土壤且在低溫時之拮抗菌株，其拮能力減弱情形為最少。在菇床使用時，以P5及O13二菌株混合使用於菇床可達62％之防治率，但並不增加洋菇的產量。加入幾可質無法增加其防治效果，而混合使用比單獨使用之效果為佳；初期加入之拮抗菌數目應該高於病原菌數目，否則防治效果低。
Pseudomonas tolaasii antagonistic bacteria and Ps were isolated from the rhizosphere of citrus soil and from the muck casing soil of mushrooms respectively. Both Ps and 013 belonged to the group of Pseudomonas species, according to the morphological observation under EM and the physiological and biochemical characteristics. They were rod-shaped and Gram-negative, had polar flagellum but with no bud or endospore, and produced fluorescent pigment. No visible symptom was observed in some cultivated plants when inoculated with either P5 or O13. No harmful effect was recorded in the culture with mycelia of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus.
Suitable temperatures for the survival of both isolates were recorded as 16 to 24C. O13 could not be re-isolated from sterilized casing soil 75 days after incubation at 12'C, while P, was after 90 days. The moisture of sterilized casing soil influenced their survival. Some of living cells were observed in the soil with a 20% content of water for 120 days. Therefore, it is necessary that the content of water at the early casing stage be larger than for the growth of antagonists in mushroom cultures. The antagonistic ability decreased in artificial media for a period of incubation. This phenomenon could be reduced to the minimum if the antagonists were kept in the original soil and isolated under low temperatures.
A 62% control of bacterial blotch was recorded in mushroom beds treated with a mixed suspension of the two isolates. Less control occurred in the beds mixed with only or 013. The use of antagonists did not increase the yield of mushrooms, but could improve their quality. No effect was observed when chitin was added, The multiplication of antagonists in the soil was reduced if they were. outnumbered by pathogens at the time of mixing.
|Appears in Collections:||植物病理組|
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