|Title:||防蟲網對積穀害蟲隔絕效果評估||Other Titles:||Evaluation of Insect-Proof Screens Applied to Prevent of Stored-Product Insects||Authors:||蘇永倫
|Keywords:||積穀害蟲;防蟲網;穀蠹;米象;麥蛾;stored product pests;insect-proof screens;Rhyzopertha dominica;Sitophilus oryzae;Sitotroga cerealella||Issue Date:||Mar-2017||Publisher:||台灣昆蟲學會||Journal Volume:||37||Journal Issue:||1||Start page/Pages:||1-10||Source:||台灣昆蟲||Abstract:||
以農藥防治積穀害蟲常導致產生害蟲抗藥性的問題與作物農藥殘留的疑慮，因此開發新型態的防治方法成為重要課題。防蟲網具物理阻隔害蟲效果；若蟲網內含殺蟲藥劑，更可能使防治效果有加成效應。本研究主要在探討不同網目之防蟲網對三種主要積穀害蟲穀蠹(Rhyzopertha dominica)、米象(Sitophilus oryzae)與麥蛾(Sitotroga cerealella)的阻隔效果，並比較網內含藥劑與否之防蟲效果差別，以提供未來防治積穀害蟲之參考。選用16、24和32目的網袋，測試上述三種害蟲24小時後之穿出率與侵入率，結果顯示無論網內含藥劑與否，均以32目防蟲網最佳，與另兩種網目皆有顯著差異(P ＜ 0.05)。就害蟲穿出率而言，不含藥劑之防蟲網，害蟲穿出率低於15%；而含藥劑者，穿出率則低於1.9%。至於侵入率，穀蠹和米象成蟲之結果與其穿出率相近，穀蠹在不含及含藥劑蟲網之侵入率分別為5.8及0%，米象則均為0%。另外，選用一齡麥蛾幼蟲測試侵入率之結果顯示，不含藥劑防蟲網之侵入率皆為100%，含藥劑者亦最高可達54.8%以上，且三網目間無顯著差異。三種成蟲接觸含藥劑蟲網24小時後的死亡率，均顯著地高於不含藥劑蟲網。綜上所述，32目不含藥劑之防蟲網對三種積穀害蟲的成蟲有極高的阻隔效果，建議應用於貯藏有機米之穀倉；而含藥劑之防蟲網，除阻隔外亦具有觸殺效果，則推薦可應用於長期貯藏之稻穀倉，將能有效降低積穀害蟲之侵入及發生。
Chemical control is widely applied to stored-product insect pests. To prevent insecticide resistance in stored-product insect pests and reduce insecticide residue on crops, researchers have developed insecticide-treated screens. This study evaluated the crossing rate, invasion rate, mortality rate, and preventive effect of screen meshes of different sizes for Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae, and Sitotroga cerealella. Three screen mesh sizes, namely 16-, 24-, and 32-mesh, were used in a 24-hour experiment. The results indicated that the 32-mesh untreated screen exhibited optimal prevention for the three tested stored-product insect pests, and the prevention rate was less than 15%. Similarly, the 32-mesh insecticide-treated screen showed the optimal preventive effect for the three stored-product insect pests, which was less than 1.9%. Statistically significant differences were observed between the 16- and 24-mesh insecticide-treated screens and the 32-mesh insecticide-treated screen for R. dominica and S. oryzae. The invasion rate was evaluated using R. dominica and S. oryzae adults, and the 32-mesh screen showed the optimal preventive effect. The invasion rates of the untreated and insecticide-treated 32-mesh screens were 5.8% and 0% for R. dominica, respectively, and were both zero for S. oryzae. S. cerealella larvae were used to evaluate the invasion rate, and the invasion rates of all untreated and insecticide-treated screens were 100% and more than 54.8% for S. cerealella, respectively. The invasion rate of the 32-mesh screen was significantly increased in comparison to the 16- and 24-mesh screens for both R. dominica and S. oryzae adults, but not the S. cerealella. Moreover, the 24-hour contact mortality rates of insecticide-treated screens were more effective than untreated screens for the three stored-product insect pests. In conclusion, the 32-mesh untreated screen shows the highest prevention rate, suggesting that it can be used in organic paddy storage facilities. The 32-mesh insecticide-treated screen combines prevention and contact mortality functions for three stored-product insect pests, suggesting its application to long-term paddy storage facilities.
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