|Title:||Assessing the authenticity of commercial deep-sea drinking water by chemical and isotopic approaches||Authors:||Tsung-Ren Peng
|Keywords:||principal component analysis;stable isotope tracer technique;authenticity;oxygen-18;hydrogen-2;deep-sea drinking water||Issue Date:||Apr-2015||Publisher:||Taylor & Francis||Journal Volume:||51||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||322-331||Source:||Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies||Abstract:||
This study combines stable isotopes and chemical elements with statistical principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the authenticity of bottled commercial drinking water desalinized from deep seawater in the Taiwan market. Isotopic results indicate that true bottled deep-sea drinking water (DSDW) exhibits about 0 parts per thousand for both delta H-2 and delta O-18 values, which are values similar to those of open seawater. By comparison, suspected counterfeit DSDW products display delta H-2 and delta O-18 values of around -51 parts per thousand and -8 parts per thousand, respectively. These values are representative of terrestrial freshwater. In addition, suspected counterfeit DSDWs have delta and electrical conductivity values similar to a mixed water (MW) product that was manufactured by purifying terrestrial freshwater and adulterating this with small amounts of brine. Furthermore, PCA results indicate the chemical constitution of suspected DSDW products to be similar to the MW product which falls between purified terrestrial freshwater and desalinized open seawater. These similarities imply that suspected counterfeit DSDW products are manufactured in a similar manner to the declared MW product. This study demonstrates how combining knowledge of stable water isotopes and PCA can be used in assessing the authenticity of commercial DSDW products. The method should be of great interest to similar investigations elsewhere.
|Appears in Collections:||SCI期刊|
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