|Title:||台灣地區灌溉水質受畜牧業污染之現況||Other Titles:||Status of Irrigation Water Quality Polluted by Livestock Industry in Taiwan||Authors:||劉玉雪
|Keywords:||電導度;氮;重金屬;Livestock industry;Irrigation water quality;Electrical conductivity;Heavy metal||Issue Date:||Nov-2008||Start page/Pages:||41-51||Source:||農業試驗所特刊;第134號||Conference:||農業非點源污染研討會論文集
Proceedings of Conference on Non-pointPollution from Agriculture
97 年度 15 個水利會畜牧搭排戶數總計有 2,272 戶，主要集中於雲林、彰化及嘉南等 水利會。依據 97 年度畜牧廢水所搭排渠道類別結果顯示，主要分布於排水路約佔 89 %， 廢水是以放流水標準管制；另排入灌排兼用、迴歸利用渠道則以灌溉水質標準 EC 規範， 兩類型搭排戶約佔總搭排戶之 11 %。
彙整90~96年全省水利會畜牧業搭排戶水質初驗資料，發現台灣地區搭排戶放流水EC值 有逐年增加趨勢，主要介於1,501~＞3,000 μS/cm兩個等級，約佔76 %~80 %。
蒐集 92~96 年間水利會畜牧廢水影響之灌排渠道 405 筆水質複驗資料，比較各項不 合格率，仍以電導度 54 %為最高，其次為氨氮(47 %)，另外 SS、氯鹽與硫酸鹽等項目均 介於 10 %，另重金屬則為 Cu 3.5 %、Zn 2.9 %。
96~97 年度完成 21 處污染灌區農田土壤飽和液 EC 與重金屬 Cu 與 Zn 檢測，結果顯示， 土壤 EC>1000 μS/cm 總計 11 處，其鹽份累積已達 FAO 之影響香蕉、豆類等範圍，其中有 1 處農田土壤>3000 μS/cm，其可能影響水稻之生長。農田土壤重金屬 Cu>100 mg/kg 有 2 處、 Zn>200 mg/kg 有 5 處，各灌區農田土壤兩項重金屬含量均較引灌乾淨水之土壤高，因此若再 遭受此類灌溉水污染，其農田土壤 Cu、Zn 將累計達食用作物管制標準 200 mg/kg、600 mg/kg。
According to the statistic data of 2008, there are 2,272 livestock plants, which were quickly raised since 2003, discharged waste water into irrigation canals. A major part of those plants are located at Yun-Lin, Chung-Hwa, and Chia-Nan Irrigation Associations, respectively. In detail of the statistic data of the preliminary test (also called field analysis) shows that 89% of the discharged canals belong to drainage canal in which the water quality should be meet the standard of effluent water. However, there is no electrical conductivity (EC) item in effluent water standard. On the other hand, there are 11 % of the discharged canals belong to dual-purpose (irrigation and drainage) canal and recycled canal in which the water quality should be meet the standard of irrigation water quality, which include EC item. In addition, not only livestock plants run up promptly but also EC value have the tendency to increase year by year from 2003. There are 76 % to 80 % of the EC value ranged two criteria 1,501 ~ 2,250μS/cm to >3,000μS/cm. In contrast to preliminary test, in
2008 there are 405 double-checking analysis around Taiwan for more detailed chemical analysis. Unqualified items of the highest rate are EC (54 %) and Ammonia (47 %) and the unqualified rate of suspended solid, chloride, sulfate, copper, and zinc are 11.4 %, 14.8 %, 8.1 %, 3.5 %, and 3.0 %, respectively. In past 2 years, there are 21 suspected pollution farmland sites which were surveyed, sampled, and analyzed. Eleven sites of the EC of saturated soil extract solution are greater than
1,000μS/cm which is already reached the FAO criteria of effecting banana and beans growth. Among them there is one site that the EC of saturated soil extract solution is greater than 3,000μS/cm which may influence the growth of the rice. Meanwhile, there are 2 and 5 sites containing high copper (> 100 mg/kg) and zinc (> 200 mg/kg) content which is higher than other sites irrigated by non-pollution irrigation water. Accelerating accumulation of copper and zinc in crop will reaching the control criteria of heavy metal in edible crop (200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively) if suffer this kind of polluted irrigation water again.
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