|dc.description.abstract||Located in subtropical area, Taiwan has warm and humid climate that is suitable for the occurrence of plant diseases and insect pests. Farmers in Taiwan were used to controlling diseases and insect pests with pesticides that might result in problems of chemical residue, pesticide resistance and environmental pollution. In order to minimize the negative effects caused by the use of pesticides, plant protection institutions have started intensive researches and extensions of non-pesticide methods since early 1970¡¦s. The top authority of plant protection, Council of Agriculture (COA), has set the development and extension of non-pesticide methods as a national strategic plan since 1984. With the efforts over the past few years, we have promoted awareness of non-pesticide control, and brought many techniques into extensive application resulting in satisfactory outcomes. Previously, we experienced considerable success in adopting non-pesticide measures to control insect pests. Among the most well known cases are introducing exotic parasitic wasps to control coconut leaf bud beetle and citrus plant lice, releasing indigenous parasitic wasps to control Asian corn borer. In recent years, some exotic predatory mites have been introduced into Taiwan and tested for their effectiveness of controlling spider mites, and exotic parasitic wasps were introduced to be tested for controlling silver leaf white fly that invaded Taiwan in 1989. Besides, indigenous natural enemies including parasitic wasps, green lacewing, and flower bug have been tested for their effectiveness of controlling different insect pests and some of them were considerably effective. Techniques for mass rearing of the promising natural enemies have been invented or improved that will make the extensive application of the biocontrol agents possible. Other non-pesticide methods that have been carried out in Taiwan include using sex pheromones to control cotton worm, beet army worm, diamond-back moth, sweet potato weevil and smaller tea tortrix, use of methyl eugenol and cuelure C 4-(p-acetoxyphenyl-2-butanone) I mixed with insecticides to annihilate male oriental fruit fly and melon-fly, respectively, hanging yellow sticky cards to catch small insect pests such as white flies, thrips, leafhoppers and aphids. With regard to plant diseases, although its initiation was later, we have gained remarkable achievements. For example, controlling soil-borne diseases of high-value crops by steam sterilization, producing pathogen-free propagating materials of banana, citrus, asparagus beans, etc. to prevent systemic diseases, especially that are caused by viruses, control of plant diseases with antagonistic microorganisms such as Trichoderina spp., Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces saraceticus, control of plant parasitic nematodes with the amendment of LT-M mixture into soil, control of several fungal and bacterial diseases with the amendment of SH mixture and an organic compound, FBN-5A, mixed with BVB NO. 4 medium. Moreover, the use of resistant rootstocks for the control of soil-borne diseases also resulted in a success. By using loofah as rootstock, Fusarium wilt of bitter gourd is effectively controlled, and by using eggplant as rootstock, bacterial wilt of tomato is satisfactorily prevented. Genetic engineering has been applied to develop transgenic plants resistant to viral diseases in Taiwan. Field trials showed that 3 coat-protein transgenic papaya lines provided a broad-spectrum resistance to different Papaya ringspot virus strains originated from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Genetically-engineered mild strains of viruses were generated to control virus diseases by cross protection. Several projects supported by National Science Council or Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ), Council of Agriculture, aiming at developing transgenic plants resistant to different kinds of diseases are in progress.||en_US|
|dc.relation.ispartof||The 3rd APEC Workshop on Sustainable Agricultural Development||en_US|
|dc.subject||genetically-engineered mild strain||en_US|
|dc.title||Non-pesticide Methods for Controlling Plant Diseases andInsect Pests in Chinese Taipei||en_US|
|dc.relation.conference||The 3rd APEC Workshop on Sustainable Agricultural Development||en_US|
|Appears in Collections:||農業化學組|
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