|Title:||水稻健康管理體系下之營養與水田管理||Other Titles:||Nutrition and Soil Management for Wet Rice Health Management System||Authors:||王鐘和
|Keywords:||水稻;營養;rice;nutrition||Issue Date:||Dec-2004||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||41-56||Source:||農業試驗所特刊;第111號||Conference:||水稻健康管理研討會專集
Proceedings of 2004 Symposium on Rice Health Management
水稻為典型的需矽作物，施用矽酸爐渣平均可獲得 5－15％之稻穀增產，水稻窒息病係由於土壤排水不良，稻根受上壤中還原性產物毒害，呼吸受阻所致，多施鉀肥及改善灌排水、避免在高溫期施用有機質肥料等措施，水稻生育可獲顯著的改善。缺鋅水田施鋅有顯著效果，一二期作平均增產各達 25％及 15％。施用有機資材將使水田之還原狀態加深，不利水稻生育。連年施用有機質肥料後，除了常作所施有機質肥料之可礦化養分量外，亦要評估土壤累積之既有有機質之可礦化養分量，以二者之和作為預期可由有機質供給之要素量，故土壤養分之診斷益加重要。
N fertilization is the most important for wet rice. Since the type of cultivar and the climate have a profound effect on crop productivity, recommendations of N rates for rice are based primarily on the variety, the region and the cropping season. Recommendations of P and K rates are based primarily on results of soil testing for available P and K in the soil.
The response of rice to phosphate and potash is generally lower than the response to nitrogen. Analyses of canonical correlations of rice response to panicle fertilizer revealed that nitrogen concentration of rice plant and panicle fertilizer dosage were highly correlated. The chlorophyll-meter value was significantly positively associated with both leaf N concentration and rice plant N concentration at panicle initiation stage. Consequently, detection of chlorophyll concentration using chlorophyll-meter would be a good tool [or determining the essential dosage of top-dressing panicle fertilizer.
The yield increases to the siliceous slag application were in the range of 5-15%. A high bicarlonate level and the poor drainage condition of soil were considered as important factors in causing the low yield of rice plant. The response to K and Zn fertilization was suggested on those soils, the improvement of drainage condition so as to promote the development of root system was also important decomposition and transformation of soil organic nitrogen into nitrogen available to plants is a biological process which is affected by weather, soil texture, the presence of clay minerals, soil management, the nature of the previous crop and other variables. Leaf diagnosis and soil testing are valuable methods of determining the nutrient status of a crop and the soil in which it is growing, as a guide to what fertilizer is required.
|Appears in Collections:||農業化學組|
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