|Title:||果園、蔬菜園長期施用有機質肥料之效果||Other Titles:||Effects of Long-term Application of Organic Matter Fertilizer on Fruit and Vegetable Production||Authors:||江國忠
|Keywords:||長期施用;有機質肥料;果園;蔬菜園;Long-term application;Organic matter fertilizer;Fruit;Vegetable||Issue Date:||Dec-1995||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||126-146||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第50號||Conference:||有機質肥料合理施用技術研討會專刊||Abstract:||
1.葡萄施用稻草堆肥區的產量6,399 kg/ha，糖度16.7˚ Brix最高，比單用化肥區的5,975 kg/ha，15.9˚ Brix增產7%，高出0.5˚ Brix。糖度在處理問為花生粕、大豆粕及腐植酸對稻草堆肥區呈顯著差異，化肥區對稻草堆肥為極顯著差異，顯示稻草堆肥對葡萄品質的改善效果最好。酸度含量各處理均在0.52至0.53g/100ml之間，差異極小。
The organic matter fertilizer has been widely used in fruit and vegetable production. The main purpose of using organic matter fertilizer is supplying nutrients to the plants, as well as changing the soil structure related to chemical and physical properties. However, it is still unknown what patterns of nutrients releasing are and what impact of soil fertilizeration has been changed after applying these varied organic matter fertilizers. Also, the efficiency of nutrient releasing of nutrients and its availability are depended on fermentation of organic matter, soil pH, soil structure, and irrigation of the land, etc. This paper is a review of recent research on application of organic fertilizers that used in fruit and vegetable production. In hopes this review can attribute some valuable points of soil fertilization for further studies.
The yield of grapes (6399 kg/ha) and sugar content (16.7 brix) were the highest values when rice straw manure was applied. The yield of rice straw manure treatment was increased 7 % compared with using chemical fertilizer. Also the sugar content increased 0.8 Brix. Treatments of using peanut cake, soybean cake, humic acid were significantly lower than the treatment of straw manure in the content of sugar. The acidity of grapes was ranged between 0.52 and 0.53 g/lOOml, and the difference among treatments were small.
The nitrogen content of leaves on the nonfruiting terminals was the highest when using peanut cake 10kg per year. Applying peanut cake 10 kg or mushroom manure 20-30 kg had the highest yield comparing with other treatments.lt showed that organic matter fertilizer 5kg applied deeply was a better technique fertilizer application on orange. Using 2kg humic acid fertilizer in a depth increased the content of sugar of the fruit. The yield was increased when 8kg of organic matter applied.
It increased the sweetness and acidity and decreased the S/TA when using 12 % humic acid original 40 ml to a plant per year.
Spraying diluted 12% humic acid (dilution 500 X) on the ground once in the period of young fruiting and 1500 X dilution humic acid to the leaves twice in the period of middle fruiting increased the numbers of fruit.
Using hog manure 40 kg per plant yearly had the highest yield of 86kg/plant. Using 30 kg chicken manure per plant had the highest sweetness.
Applying 40 kg hog manure to a plant per year increased the pH value 0.19 unit, organic matter content 0.09%, calcium 399 ppm, manganese 25ppm in the soil. It had the highest yield when using 40kg hog manure to a plant per year.
Applying 40 kg hog manure to a plant per year had the highest yield of 5.44 kg. The content of sugar was increased when applying No.1 Taiwan organic matter fertilizer 10 kg (17.5 Brix). Applying hog manure and other organic matter manure can increase soil pH, organic matter content, calcium and magnesium content of the soil, and nitrogen, calcium, magnesium content of the leaves.
(8) Wentan pomelo
In the aspect of cane-sugar content, applying 16 kg of No.1 Taiwan organic fertilizer on the ground surface had the highest value among the treatments. In the aspect of production yield, applying 16 kg No.1 Taiwan Organic fertilizer in a depth of 60 cm had the highest yield of 45.1 kg.
(1) In addition to chemical fertilizer, odds chicken (3 tons per crop), garbage manure (5 tons, 10 tons in 2 crops) were the treatments of a vegetable production study. The yield of all treatments applying organic matter were significantly higher than chemical fertilizer treatment in the first crop of Chinese cabbage production, increasing 3-27% averagely. In the second crop of lettuce, yield increased 29-53%. Spinach, the third crop, increased 18-25%. Lettuce, the forth crop, increased 11-21%.Chinese kale, the fifth crop, increased 24-28%. Chinese cabbage, the sixth crop, increased 10-16%. The yield of seventh crop radish was not higher in garbage manure treatment. This was probably caused by the viral disease. Chinese cabbage, the eighth crop, increased 25-32%. Water convolvulus, the ninth crop, increased 33.8-47.6%. Chinese kale, the tenth crop, increased 65.1-73.4%.
(2) Taiwan organic fertilizer No. 1, humic acid fertilizer and chicken manure were applied in another study based on the same amount of N-P2O5-K2O. Lettuce and cabbage were conducted. The yield of applying chicken manure was increased 18.3% (lettuce) and 13.3% (cabbage). Applying Taiwan organic fertilizer No.1 decreased the 17% yield on lettuce and increased 5.6% on cabbage. Applying humic acid fertilizer decreased 35.3% on lettuce, and increased 10.4 % on cabbage.
(3) In an experiment using fermented hog manure (5 tons/acre) showed a significant increase on cabbage, green onion, and lettuce. The percentages of increase are between 7.1% and 63.0%.
(4) In another study, rice straw, bark compost manure, chicken manure, hog manure, and cattle manure were applied continuously for six crops (seventh crop is in progress). In the first crop, the yield had been increased 4% when using rice straw manure; however, other treatments had decreased the yield 3-9%. The similar condition had occurred on the second crop. Lettuce, the third crop increased 1% by applying hog manure, other manure decreased the yield from 9 to 17%. Small Pai-tsai the forth crop, rice straw decreased the yield compared with chemical fertilizer; other manure increased the yield from 4 to 16%. The fifth crop, all kinds of manure increased the yield well.
|Appears in Collections:||農業化學組|
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