|Title:||中部地區農業氣象環境與災害發生潛勢分析||Other Titles:||The Agrometeorological Environment and Disasters Occurring Potential in the Central Region of Taiwan||Authors:||陳守泓
|Keywords:||農作生產;氣象災害;潛勢分佈;農業氣象;Agricultural production;Meteorological disaster;Potential distribution;Agrometerorology||Issue Date:||Dec-2007||Publisher:||台灣農藝學會||Journal Volume:||4||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||345-352||Source:||作物、環境與生物資訊||Abstract:||
臺灣中部地區(臺中、南投、彰化、雲林、嘉義、臺南等縣)屬於柯本氏分類法中的夏濕冬乾的暖溫帶氣候(Cw)。夏季平地高溫可以超過35℃，冬季低溫平地和山區可能分別低達5℃和-5℃以下。日夜溫差夏季平均約7-9℃，冬季平均約8-11℃，沿海地區整年約維持在6℃。夏季受天空雲量增多之影響，山區日射量顯著低於平地。各地最大瞬間陣風風速皆有可能會超過8 級風(輕度颱風標準)。依災損金額區分，本地區主要農業氣象災害依序為颱風害、雨害、寒害、冰雹害、旱害、以及焚風害。雖然颱風害導致的災損金額約佔所有農業氣象災損金額的2/3，但主要致災因素仍是因為雨量過大所造成。近十年間，中部六縣颱風害和雨害發生率皆超過70%；臺中、南投兩縣寒害發生率在30%以上，其餘四縣發生率在20%以下；由於本地區已依水庫存水量實施稻作休耕措施，因此旱害發生率在10%以下；冰雹害六縣皆曾發生，但發生率在20%以下；焚風害僅曾在南投縣發生，發生率為30%。電視或廣播是目前農民獲取農業氣象災害防護知識的主要管道，顯示相關推廣教育仍有待加強。農民可接受的防護措施成本必須在每分地5 萬元以下，因此除需積極加強經濟有效的微氣象防護措施的研發工作外，在規劃擬種植之作物前參考當地氣象災害發生潛勢資訊，將可減輕農業氣象災害的損失。
The central region of Taiwan, including Taichung, Nantou, Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi, and Tainan, has temperate climate with dry winter (Cw) as classified from Koppen’s system. The temperature would exceed 35℃ in summer. In winter, the plain and mountainous areas would be less than 5℃ and -5℃ respectively. The averages of temperature differences between day and night were about 7-9℃ and 8-11℃ in summer and winter, respectively. The temperature difference in coastal area was about 6℃. The solar radiation at mountainous areas was less than that at the plain, and affected possibly by cloudiness. The maximum wind velocity may exceed the 8th level in the region. Based on the value of economic loss, the major agrometeorological disasters in descending order were typhoon, rainfall damage, cold damage, hailstorm, drought, and foehn. Although the loss value of typhoon was 1/3 of all, the main cause of the disaster was the excessive rainfall. In the past decade, the occurring probability of both typhoon and rainfall damage was above 70%. The occurring probability of cold damage was above 30% at Taichung and Nantou, but was less than 20% at the others. Because the rice fallow policy was implemented, the occurring probability of drought was less than 10%. Hailstorms occurred at 6 counties but the probability was less than 20%. Foehn occurred only at Nantou and the probability was 30%. Videos or broadcasts were the major way for farmers got information protected from agrometeorological disasters, indicating education to general public need to be strengthened. Because the cost a farmer likely to spend was less than NTD500,000 per ha, we must enhance the research of protected measures and the use of potential information to mitigate the loss caused by agrometeorological disasters.
|Appears in Collections:||農業工程組|
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