|Title:||採收木瓜酵素品種選擇及採收方法之研究||Other Titles:||STUDY ON PAP AlN COLLECTION OF SOMESELECTED PAPAYA||Authors:||戴邦本
|Keywords:||性比;環境適應性;活性;深度;乳液;sex ratio;environmental adaptability;activity;depth;latex||Issue Date:||Sep-1961||Publisher:||臺灣園藝學會||Journal Volume:||7||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||1-13||Source:||中國園藝||Abstract:||
1 . 綜合特性比較:
(1) 就各品種性別而論， 具有雌、雄株兩種性別者， 二者交配後，後代性比為♀ :♂ =1: 1 ， 因雄株生產果質極少， 或完全不能結果，故在栽培時需拔除50% 雄株，頗不經濟， 本研究中計有 de Florida，IFA C 360 , Haiti 三品種。具有雌、雄， 兩性株三種性別品種，用雌株與兩性株交配採種， 後代中則無雄株發生， 其性比為♀: ♂ =1 : 1 ， 因每株均能生產，在裁培上頗為有利，計有褋交一號， Phi1ippine, Semangka , 本地種， Solo 129 ，五品種。褋交一號即屬於此類，故極適於生產上之要求。
(2) 在供試8品種中，褋交一號( Px5) F1， 聯合株高及株組比較， 除Philippine 外， 較其他品種均為矮生粗健， 若與本地種比較， 約超過本地種20%，結果部位低，用為採收木瓜酵素，可以節省勞力，抗風力強可以防止倒折， 因其生育極為健旺，在栽培管理上極為有利。
(3) 木瓜在雨季由於土壤中Phthium 及Fusarium兩種真菌，所引起之根腐病而言， 其抵抗力之大小，依次為褋交一號， Philippine，Semangka，本地種，Haiti，de Florida，Solo 129 ， IFA C 360 。據以上抗病力，以褋交一號為最強，Philippine 及Semangka 次之。de Florida 與Haiti 酵素產量及de Florida 與Semangka 生果產量，雖僅次於褋交一號，但對於根腐病而言， 遠較褋交一號為劣。 8品種中de Florida為非洲採收酵素經濟品種之一， 據本研究之結果在臺灣栽培尚不夠理想，由此可知適於臺灣環境條件下栽培之木瓜品種， 以在本土自行育成者最為適宜。
( a) 褋交一號雖較de Florida產量稍高，在統計數字上並無顯著差異，但較Semangka 等其他6 品種，均呈極顯著之豐產， 差異標準達 1% 平準。
(b ) de Florida 品種產量， 除稍次於褋交一號，較其他6品種分別增產達5% 與1% 平準。
( c) Semangka ， 本地種，Haiti 三品體，較IFA C 360 及Solo 129均豐產分別達到 5% 與1 %平準。
(d ) 本試驗8 品種間，以Philippine 品種產量較低， 其中以IFA C 360 及Solo 129 兩品種產量為最低。
(c) de Florida 除與Haiti，Semangka，Philippine 三品種無顯著差異外，但較本地種，IFA C 360，Solo 129 均豐產達5%與1%平準。
(d) 本試驗8 品種間，以本地種產量較低， 而以IFA C 360 及Solo 129 為最低。
3. 供試8品種酵素蛋白質分解活力，係以乾酪素( Casein ) 分解法測定，所採用單位為每1小時每1ml。 (milli- liter) 木瓜酵素，所能消化同單位 Casein 之倍率表示之。各品種活力之大小依次為Haiti，IFA C 360 ，褋交一號，Philippine，de Florida，Semangka，本地種及Solo 129 。
較褋交一號優者，有Haiti，IFAC 360二品種，但其酵素及果實產量均顯著較褋交一號為低。de Florida 酵素活力及產量， 均稍次於褋交一號，其他各品種活力均低於褋交一號。褋交一號酵素之樣品，據試銷美國前化驗結果，亦在國際標準以上，故在活力上亦符合生產條件。
4. 綜合以上結論，褋交一號在產量及品質、生育、環境適應性等方面極為理想， 在酵素及生果推廣上，均可採用褋交一號最為優良。
(1)就刺劃果質大小，道數，相隔日數與酵素產量關係而論， 以採用大果較中果為優，但相差不大，小果則較大果及中果顯著為低，大果及中果以每隔8日，刺劃10道為最優。小果則以每隔4 日，刺劃4道為最優。果實最適採收期標準長度， 採用大果時，雌果為18.5cm，兩性果為22.5cm 。中果時雌果為14.5cm，兩性果為18. 5cm。小果時雌果為10.5cm，兩性果為14.5cm。
(2) 關於刺劃深度與產量關係為利用大果供試，用二種不同深度刺劃刀組合，於同一果實上同時刺劃相互比較。據1-4組合(0.lcm 及0.2cm , 0.1cm 及0.3cm , 0.1cm 及0.4cm , 0.2cm及0.3cm) ， 均為產量隨深度而依次增加， 第5組合探0.2cm者較0.4cm者產量為高，第6組合0.3cm者與0.4cm者產量相同，由此可知以採用0.3cm 為最適深度。因乳腺均位於表皮層下部，過深不僅使部份酵素，存留於採取乳液果肉間隙底部， 使產量減少，同時易於引起果實腐爛。刺劃相隔距離， 以在2cm 以上為當。
(3) 據利用100個果簣， 每果連讀採收9次結果，由於刺劃次數之增加， 酵素產量則依次誠少，由於外在氣象條件，產量偶有波動情形發生，綜合雌果及兩性果乳液(latex) 與乾燥後酵素之比， 為1.26g:0.28g=4.5: 1 。
1. Comparison of the Ge n eral Characteristics.
(1) So far as the sex is concenned, the sex ratio of the progenies raised from the seeds of the dioecious varieties is ♀:♂ = 1 : 1 . Since the male plant yields only a few fruit or no fruit at all, about 50% of the male young plants should be practieally rooted out during the period of growth. Three varieties were tested in this study. They are de Florida. IFAC 360 and Haiti. With the polygamous varieties no male plant had been found from the progenies raised from the seeds of crossing between female and hermaphrodite plant. The sex ratio of their progenies is ♀ : ♂ = 1 : 1. All of the progenies can normally yield fruits, and meet the requirement of the market. The polygamens, varieties deserved are
Hybrid No.1. philippine, Semangka and Local variety.
(2) In Comparison of the heights and the diameters of the stems of the 8 varieties tested in this study, except the philippine variety, the Hybrid No. 1 ( PxS) F1 is the lowest, Its stem diameter is 20 % greater than that of the Local variety. It has stronger resistance to the wind and the fruit growing on a lower position, very convenient for
çollecting papain from them.
(3)In Comparison of the ability of resistance to the disease of root rot caused by the fungus during the rainy season. The order is Hybrid No.1, philippine, Semangka, Local variety,Haiti, de Florida, Solo 129 and IFAC 360. Though the output of papain of de Forida and Haiti, and the yield of fruit of de Florida and Semangka are only a little lower than the Hybrid No. 1. The ability of resistance of these varieties 10 root rot are much lower than that of No.1 Among the 8 tested varieties, the Flcrida is one of the economical variety for yielding papain in Africa. But according to the result of this experimet, it seems not a desiraole one in Fromosa. I am sure that only the variety Hybrid No.1 it this island is suitable to local natural conditions.
2. Comparison of Yields
(1) Comparison of the Yields of Fruit
( a) Though the Hybrid No. 1 gives a little higher yield than the de Florida does. It shows no significant difference beteen them in statistics. But in comparison with the Semangka and the other 6 varities, the hybrid No.1 gives much higher yield of fruit.
(b) The yield of de F1orida is a litt1e lower than Hybrid No.1, But it gives higher. yield than the other 6 varieties. the Standard Significance attains to the level of 1% and 5 %.
(c) The yields of Semangka, Local Variety and Haiti are higher than those of the IFAC 360 and Solo 129. Their Standard Significance attain to the level of 5% and 1% respectively.
( b) In Comparison of the yields of the 8 tested varieties in the research-The yield of the Philippine is somewhat lower and the IFAC 36O and Solo 129 are the lowest.
(2) Comparison of the Yields of Papain
According ta the comparison of the amounts of papain collected from fruits of different varieties tested in this research. The following conclusions can be drawn:
(a) There are evident differences in t be yields of papain between the 8 tested varieties.
(b) The Hybrid No. 1 gives the highest yield than the rest of the varieties. Its standard significance is 1%
(c) No prominent differences in the amounts of papain yielding have been found among the Hail i, Serrlangka and Philippine, But their yields are higher than those the Local variety, IFAC 360 and Solo 129. The standar d Significances are up to the leveI of 5% and 1%.
(d) Among the 8 tested varieties the yield of the Local variety is rather low. But those of the IFAC 360 and Solo 129 are the lowest.
3. In examining the proteolytic activity of papain, the method of analysis of casein measuring is adopted in this research. The unit employed is the measuring of the amount of casein dissolved in one millititer of papain in one hour. The ability of dissolution of the
tested varieties in order are Haiti, IFAC 360. Hybrid No. 1, Philippine, de Florida, Semangka, Local varity and Solo 129. Though the Haiti and IFAC 360 are of the high ability of dissolution than the Hybrid No. 1. Both the papain content and fruit production
of the formers are lower than the latter. Through the analysis of the samples sent to the United States of America for sale the result shows good agreement with the international standard in the ability of proteolytic activity.
4. In Summing up the conclusions listed above. Hybrid No.1 is the ideal variety on yield, quality, growth and on the ability of adaptation to enviroment, and is the best variety for yielding of fruit and collecting papain. Since 1959 the J. C. R. R., Bureau of Agricalture and Bureau of Food jointly raised great many seeds of Hybrid No. 1 for the purpose of development of papain collecting in the east part of Formosa. and of fruits production by using the plants as intercrop with pineapple in the west part of Formosa. The possibility of the use of fruits as provender as well as the utilization of the by-product of papain are also under favourable consideration.
5. Discuss ion on Method of Papain Collection
(1) So far as the size of fruit. number lancing, time for collecting and the amount of yield of papain are concemed, there is no evident difference in yield between fruits of Jarge and median size. but the fruits small size are found much lower in yielding than the formers. The best way for collecting papain from the fruits of the large or median size is to lance 10 lines .on it in every other 8 days. For the smaller fruits to lance lines in every other 4 days is enough. The desirable length of fruits for collecting papain are: To the large sizes, 18.5 cm for female female, 22. 5 cm for hermaphrodite fruit. To the median sizes, 14.5 cm for female. 18.5 cm for hermaphrodite. To the small sizes. 10.5 cm female. 14. 5 cm for hermaphrodite.
( 2) In order to find out the relationship between depth of lancing and amount of yield of papain, two different depths of lancing on one fruit were made as a set of test. Through the analysis of results obtained from this study. it is found that from set 1 through set 4 ( 0.1 cm and 0.2 cm. 0.1 cm and 0. 3 cm. 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm. 0: 2 cm and 0.4cm) the amount of yield of papain is proportional to the depth of lacing. In the set 5, the yiled of papain with depth 0. 2 cm is higher than that of the 0. 4 cm. with in set 6. no difference in yield can be found between the lancing depths 0. 3 cm and 0. 4 cm. There-fore . the lancing depth of 0. 3 cm is t he most desirable for collecting papain. This is because of the latex tubes are just below the surface skin of fruit. a too deep lancing usually detain a part of papain in the lancing cracks. and is also very easy to cause disease
of rot. The distances beteen lancing lines should not less than 2.0 cm.
(3) From the results of a continuous !) times collecting papain on each of the 100 testing fruits. The data shows that the more the times of collecting. the less of amount of yield will be obtained. Owing to tbe effect of weather. there are also some fluctuations in the yield of papain. In Comparison with the ratio of lat ex and dried papain in the female or hermaphrodite fruits. t he following relationship is obtained 1.21g: 0.28g= 4.5 :1. That means that the weight of latex is 4.5 times of the papain.
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