|Title:||金針菇優良栽培品系之選拔||Other Titles:||Selection of Elite Lines of Winter Mushroom for Cultivation in Taiwan||Authors:||廖英明
|Issue Date:||8-Jun-1989||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||38||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||229-241||Source:||中華農業研究||Abstract:||
利用單胞雜交法，進行四種來源不同的金針菇品種間的雜交。首先由70 種雜交組合中得到18種可在洋菜培養基上生長良好且可出菇的雜交體。這些雜交體在每100ml培養液中可產生0.3518到0.8281g的菌絲體，其間差異極大。將其培養在木屑培養基時，若接種源為液體培養菌種則其生長速快於洋菜培養菌種。由其中選取12種生長勢較優之雜交體進行栽培試驗，發現其中之F8015 × F8045及F2004 × 9039生長勢強且可產生良好品質具經濟效益之子實體，可作為栽培品種或進一步育種之材料。在進行所有12種雜交體之栽培試驗後，顯示金針菇之子實體含水量為87～91％，而在800ml鋸屑之瓶中可產生603～1,039枝子實體，但其中可發育成型的佔39～47％；而若比較切脚與不切脚之產量時，發現切脚後損失率為15～24％，因此每瓶之經濟產量為122～169g。而從接種到出菇採收所需時間為53～60天。由本試驗結果顯示，金針菇可經由雜交育種方法選拔出具有優良品質及高產量之雜交體，供作大量栽培之用。
Winter mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) is one of the important mushroom in Taiwan. Most of the currently grown lines/strains were introduced from Japan. After a certain period of cultivation, degeneration is commonly observed. This study is aimed at obtaining elite lines/strains of winter mushroom for cultivation in Taiwan. Four groups of monokaryons from Japan and Taiwan were used for intercrossing. 18 out of the 70 dikaryons were with good mycelial growth and fruit-body formation in agar medium. The 18 dikaryons produced between 0.3518 and 0.8281g of dry myclia in l00ml of liquid medium. In terms of mycelial growth velocity, all dikaryons were faster by using liquid spawn than using agar spawn. Among the 12 dikaryons tested, F2004×9039 and F8015×8045 were with stronger vigor then the others and produced economic yields in sawdust medium. The quality of the fruiting bodies was also quite promosing. Water content of the sporophores of the 12 testers were found between 87 and 90%. In each saw-dust bottle, 608 to 1039 needle/individual heads were produced and 38-47 % of the needles became normal fruiting bodies. Foot cutting of the fruiting bodies lost 15-24% of the yield. The economic yield or harvested yield per bottle was ranged between 122 and 169g. Appearance of sporophors was found between 58 and 60 days by using liquid spawn. Results of this study indicated that dikaryons F2004×9039 and F8015×8045 can be used in commercial cultivation or used as a breeding material for further improvement. Development or selection of elite hybrids can also be explored to increase the quality and quantity of winter mushroom cultivation in Taiwan.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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