|Title:||Mirex 誘餌防治鳳梨園螞蟻試驗||Other Titles:||Control of Ants in Pineapple Field by Mirex Bait||Authors:||李錫山
|Issue Date:||8-Dec-1974||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||23||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||307-310||Source:||農業研究||Abstract:||
粉介殼蟲Dysmicoccus brevipes Ckll.為害所引起之鳳梨萎凋病，為鳳梨最嚴重之病害。而粉介殼蟲之生存，係藉螞蟻之維護，故欲使鳳梨粉介殼蟲萎凋病防治獲得確切之效果，對鳳梨園螞蟻之防治應同時進行。
二十年來在臺灣推行於鳳梨園之螞蟻防治，多用氯化煙劑(Ch1orinated hydrocarbons)，如DDT, Aldrin等，尤以後者用得最多，效果非常良好。由於氯化烴劑有較長之殘效，其藥效在田間可維持數月之久。Gannon (1958)發現Aldrin在土壤中部份氧化而為Dieldrin，使其藥效既長且毒，為最佳之土壤害蟲殺蟲劑。
Lofgren et al. (1961), Stringer et al. (1964), Banks et al. (1973)，曾先後用Mirex在美國防治Imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren，均獲優異效果。夏威夷鳳梨研究所亦於1966年開始用Mirex作鳳梨園螞蟻防治試驗，至1970年作較大面積防治試驗，以空中撒施，每英畝用0.3% Mirex 2.5磅，一次施用之後，幾可維持將近一年之久。現夏威夷已大面積採用Mirex替代氣化烴劑，防治鳳梨園螞蟻。
The major ant species present in the pineapple field in Taiwan are Pheidologeton diversus Jerdon, Anopholepis longipes Jerdon, and Camponotus friedae var. amia Ferel. A number of ant species associated with mealybugs which induce in turn a serious wilting of pineapple plants, known as mealyhug wilt. Direct control of mealybugs with insecticides is important but the work is still uncompleted in the absence of ant control.
For the past two decades, 40% aldrin wp has been used in the pineapple fields in Taiwan for control the ants very successfully, taking advantage of the residual activity of this material following soil application. The problem, now, has been brought under review in the recent years for the excessive used of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Some of this group of insecticides have been gradually eliminated their use because of many ecological questions raised.
Mirex bait was then tested to control the ants in pineapple field instead of aldrin. 3 kgs. of 0.3% mirex per hectare was used in comparison with 5 kgs. of 40% aldrin wp. The plot size was 15 × 15 m. The space of pineapple planting was 50 × 30 cm. by 2 rows with 100 cm. apart. It was about 1,000 plants of pineapple in each plot. There were three treatments with four replications in a randomized complete block designed.
Mirex bait was broadcasted by hands woren rubber gloves while aidrin was sprayed by knapsack sprayer. Ant population was counted in each plot prior to treatment. Several number of post-treatment evaluatlons were taken at 10, 30, 60, 100 and 140 days respectively. Ants were counted by means of a wire square, whose size is 50 × 50 cm. The wire square was put on the ground of pineapple field between the wider rows within which the wandering ants were counted. Ten counts were taken in each plot.
The results, as showed in Table 1, revealed that aldrin killed the ants more rapidly than that of the mirex. This might he the advantage of the mirex that treated as a bait. If the bait toxicant killed the ants very quickly, as described by Stringer (1964) , it would cause the ants to be aware of taking the poisoned bait, the ants would usually cease feeding on it and move the colony. One application of akirin and mirex bait both maintained as long as 100 days under the summer condition in south part of Taiwan.
The plot size, which made in this experiment, was found to be inadequate to completely shut off border effect of treatments applied in adjacent plot. It was limited by the size of the field which could be extented no more. As a result, the ants which came from the untreated area were very easily wandering into the treated plots. It would therefore influence the population density of the ants in the plots as they were exactly to be.
The population density of the ants in check plots also decreased significantly in the posttreatment evaluations. It might also be due mainly to the fact that some of the check plots were contiguous to the mirex plots, to which the ants, from the check plots, were very easily attracted and then killed by carrying the bait hack. On the other hand, it would also reduce the dosage of the bait as well as the effectiveness of control in the mirex plots.
The results revealed that the mirex bait could be used to kill the ants in large scale of pineapple plantations. Under the condition as now in Taiwan, there is no doubt, the mirex could be used properly in the plantations of Taiwan Pineapple Cooperation. But there are still a large number of pineapples grown by farmers, they own mostly very small scale of farms. The only way that could be done is cooperated control.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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