|Title:||高溫菇害蟲觀察與防治試驗||Other Titles:||Observations on Hot Mushroom (Agaricus bitorquis) Insect Pests and Their Control||Authors:||林珪瑞
|Issue Date:||5-Sep-1979||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||28||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||157-170||Source:||中華農業研究||Abstract:||
高溫菇（Agaricus bitorquis）菇舍以關島偽毛蠅（HoloPlagia guamensis）發生最多，影響產量甚大。本試驗在菇舍內調查其發生情況，並在室內進行其生活史、習性觀察及藥劑防治試驗。又粗綠瘦蠅（Heteropeza pygmaea ）幼蟲不但為害菌絲，且能潛入姑體，嚴重影響外銷品質。本試驗乃以高溫桔4 品系菌絲飼育其幼蟲，發現其在臺灣品系較外國品系之菌絲上不易繁殖。
關島偽毛蠅一世代發育所需時間隨溫度升高而縮短，在30℃ 左右僅需12~（14.4）~18 天完成一世代。成蟲具趨光性，但在黑暗菇舍照常生活。雌蟲壽命約3 天，雄蟲約4 天。雌蟲於交尾當日或次日產卯，每雌最多可產182 粒。卵期以4 天為最多，3 天者次之。卵之孵化率為76~97% 。幼蟲屬無腳型（Apodous larvae） ，具4 齡期，腐生性，能在似爛泥之飼料中生活。蛹為被蛹，化蛹在老熟幼蟲薄皮內。蛹期隨溫度升高而縮短，30℃ 時多數為3~4 天。
以IGR-Gnatiside 處理關島偽毛蠅之食料，未能有效抑制其成蟲羽，僅能使之延緩3-5 天。以50% DDVP 燻殺成蟲，在0.4-0.5 ml / M3之用藥量燻蒸2 小時，其效果甚佳且與溫度升高成正比。本試驗探明20 種藥劑預防成蟲之效果，以Malathion 與Meobal 較為經濟而有效。
The saprophagous of dipterous insect pest of the cultivated hot mushroom (Agaricus bitorquis) has recently become serious in Taiwan. Some ecological observations on chemical control of the pest were investigated from July 1976 to June 1978. The results are summarized as follows:
1. During the cultivation period of hot mushroom, the insect were collected by light trap setting inside in the mushroom house. Among 14 species of insect collected, 85.3% were Holoplagia guamensis, 11.4% were Scatopse furcipes, 2.6% were predator of staphylinids and 0.14% were Heteropeza pygmaea.
2. The rate of development and paedogenetic reproduction of H. pygmaea were varied upon feeding with different strains of the A. bitorquis. Under the temperature 30°C the number of paedogenetic larvae was found to be lowest in Taiwan strain (code number AB) and highest in Franch strain (code number FA 61). For the Taiwan strain it was only found 0-4 (av. 1.2) larvae within the growth period, however the Franch strain was found 102-262 (av. 165.1) larvae.
3. The adult of H. guamensis is phototropic, but they can live normally in dark mushroom house. The average longevity of adult is 3 days for the female and 4 days for the male. After emergence, adults mate immediately and lay eggs at the same day or one day after mating. Egg was laid separately. Each female lays about 182 eggs in maximum. About 76 to 97% of eggs could hatch with in 4 days at 30°C. The apodous larvae is saprophagous with 4 instars. The width of head capsule of the first to 4th instars is 0.06, 0.09. 0.16 and 0.29 mm, respectively. The obtect pupae is hidden under the thin skin of the mature larvae. Pupal stage usually lasts 2 to 11 days, but it may be only 3-4 days at the temperature of 30°C. The growth rate of the immature stage depends on temperature, one generation takes about 20-24 days at 20-25°C and 12-18 days at 30°C. S. furcipes seems required slightly more days to complete one generation.
4. 10% IGR-Gnatiside were diluted into 0.001, 0.01 or 0.03% a. i. and sprayed into the larval media, it may prolong the pupal stage for 3-5 days, but no effective control was obtained. For the control of adult, the use of DDVP 50% EC at dose of 0.4-0.5 ml/M3 as a fumigant is effective. The use of Baythion 50% EC, Hostothion 40% EC, Furadan 75% WP or Lannate 90% WP as a residue film for contact poisoning are also effective and lasts more than 100 days; the use of Dursban 40.8% EC, Elsan 50% EC, Actellic 25% EC, Sumition 50% EC or Meobal 50%WP（each diluted to 1% a. i.）are effective and lasts about 45 days. The Diazinon and other chemicals are less effective or no effect at all. Therefore, 1% a. i. Malathion or Meobal spray on the outside wall, window screen and door of mushroom house is recommended for favorable control of the adult flies.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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