|Title:||玉米銹病判別與抗病篩選||Other Titles:||Diagnosis of corn Rusts and Screening for Rust Resistance||Authors:||葉忠川
|Issue Date:||8-Sep-1984||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||33||Journal Issue:||3||Start page/Pages:||306-315||Source:||中華農業研究||Abstract:||
本試驗之目的，（l ）提供本省兩種玉米銹病之鑑別方法，（2 ）提供篩選方法並測定玉米品系對銹病之抵抗性做為育種之指標。本省玉米有普通型及南方型兩種鐫病，普通型其夏胞子堆之病斑為卵圓形到細長形，咖啡色，並常附有寄主表皮，冬胞子堆黑褐色到黑色，開敞狀，為夏胞子堆轉換而成，夏胞子黃褐色，近乎圓形，冬胞子咖啡色到黑褐色，周圍圓滑，頂端明顯加厚。南方型其夏胞子堆時期之病斑為小圓形，金黃色，冬胞子堆黑褐色到黑色，散生在夏胞子堆周圍，被植物表皮覆蓋的時間較長，夏胞子金黃色，卵圓形，冬胞子黃褐色，常呈稜角狀，頂端部分加厚不明顯。先用離葉法培養接種源，然後四至六葉之玉米幼苗以夏胞子懸浮液接種，經過六至十天後記載病斑形態，無可見病徵到退綠色黃斑者為抗病型，黑色壞死小點到小形夏胞子堆者為中抗型，夏胞子堆完全發育並大量產胞者為感病型，共測定984 個品系，抗普通型鐫病者有臺農育351 號及351 母本改良系等多品系，抗南方型銹病者較少，初步試驗結果只有ER 172 , ER318 , ER325 及ER504 等抗性較強，臺南五號及臺南十一號對此兩種銹病均無抵抗性。
Experiments were conducted to differentiate common rust from southern rust of maize and to screen germplasm of maize for rust resistance. The uredia of Puccinia sorghi Schw., the cause of common rust, are circular to elongate, chocolate-brown, often with host epidermis attached. Uredospores are cinnamon-brown, spherical. Telia are erumpent, chocolate-brown to black. Teliospores, which replaced the uredospores in the pustu-les, are chocolate-brown to black-brown, smooth, often with thickening and darkening apex. The uredia of Puccinia polysora Underw., the cause of southern rust, are light cinnamon-brown, circular. Telia are circular, chocolate-brown to black and remain covered by the epidermis longer than in common rust, often appeared in circules around the uredia. Uredospores are yellowish to golden, ovoid. Teliospores are chestnut-brown, angularly ellipsoid or ovoid, without obvious thickening of apex. Inocula or uredospores of the two rust fungi for screening tests were separately cultured on the detached leaves of a susceptible corn cultivar in petri plates. Test corn seedlings with 4 to 6 expanded leaves were sprayed with uredospore suspension. Six to ten days after inoculation, the reaction was graded. The grading system consisted of three categories, i. e. resistant (R)-no visible symptoms or chlorotic spots; moderate (M)-necrotic flecks, or with medium, not fully developed uredia; susceptible (S)-with fully developed uredia which sporulated abundantly. Nine-hundred and eighty four lines/varieties were screened. Tainungyu 351 and many other lines were resistant to common rust and only a few lines such as ER 172, ER 418, ER 325 and ER 504 were resistant to southern rust. Taiwan 5 and Tainan 11 were susceptible to both rusts.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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