|Title:||草莓葉蟎生物防治（1）||Other Titles:||Biological Control of Spider Mites on Strawberry in Taiwan (I)||Authors:||羅幹成
|Issue Date:||8-Dec-1984||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Volume:||33||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||406-417||Source:||中華農業研究||Abstract:||
本文為一系列試驗結果之初報，內容包括草莓上神澤葉蟎（Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida）和二點葉蟎（T. urticae ( Koch ) ）之大量繁殖法；天敵一長毛捕植蟎（Amblyseius longispinosus ( Evans ) ）大量繁殖法；長毛捕植蟎之冷藏；遷移能力之測定；不同食餌對其生育及捕食量之影響；其對不同葉蟎及在不同葉蟎密度下捕食能力之比較；以及其在草莓田間防治神澤葉蟎及二點葉蟎之結果。簡要說明如下：在光周期14L-10D 及溫度25±1 ℃ 條件下，兩種葉蟎在盆栽大豆上經10 天之繁衍可獲致10 倍之收穫量，二種間並無明顯差異；在食餌葉蟎充分供應下，於30±2℃ 時，在大豆植株上接入5 隻／株雌性長毛捕植蟎，經14 天可增殖至400 隻／株；而在20±1℃ 時，則需經27 天方可增殖至400 隻／株；長毛捕植蟎在5℃ 定溫箱內，若將濕度維持在85-95%RH 之範圍內，經11 天冷藏，對其存活及活力並未造成明顯不利之影響，而經15 天冷藏，其存活率仍達65.4%；其遷移能力直接受溫度之影響，而其食餌密度又可間接影響其遷移速度，在一般情況下，葉蟎密度愈高，其遷移速度愈慢，反之則愈快，而其本身密度之高低，亦影響其遷散速度及分布均勻度，一般其密度愈高，愈促使其加速遷散，並且分佈均勻度亦較高，反之則否；神澤葉蟎和二點葉蟎均為長毛捕植蟎幼期之適宜食餌，一旦發育為成蟎後，長毛捕植蟎捕食神澤葉蟎量較二點葉蟎高出42%，而其產卵量亦較捕食二點葉蟎者高出14%；而在兩種葉蟎不同密度下，神澤葉蟎密度愈高，長毛捕植蟎之捕食量可隨之增高，但二點葉蹣密度愈高，在開始時長毛捕植蟎捕食量亦會隨之上升，但升至某一食餌蟎密度以上時，捕食量不再增加，反有下降趨勢；田間釋放長毛捕植蟎防治高密度神澤葉蟎（約200 隻／複葉），每株釋放10 隻以上，經過4 周可達85 %之防治效果，經過5 周更可達98 %之防治佳績；但對高密度二點葉蟎（312 隻／複葉）而言，雖經3 次釋放長毛捕植蟎，仍無法抑制其棲群繼續上升，其對低密度二點葉蟎（13 隻／複葉）之壓抑效果，僅有2 周，爾後仍需加強長毛捕植蟎之釋放，方可維持較長期之效果。
The present study consists of the following six experiments, i. e. Developing the methods for mass production of spider mites (as preys) and the predator, Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans); maintenance of the predator; evaluating the dispersal ability of the predator; prey consumptions of predator and oviposition on the different prey species; the efficiency of predator at different prey densities in a confined system; and release of A. longispinosus for the control of the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch).
Spider mites were transfered to the soybean plants, under 25±1°C and 14L-10D conditions, 10 times of the number of original spider mites would be obtained in 10 days later, no significant difference in number of progeny between kanzawa spider mite and two-spotted spider mite would be found. Under the temperature of 32±2°C and 20±1°C, predatory mites were transfered under the density of 5/plant to the soybean plants which have been infested by the kanzawa spider mite, could be obtained 400/plant in 14 and 27 days later, respectively.
In the conditions of 5°C and 85-95% RH, the predator could be stored for at least 11 days and no significant harmfulness was found, after 15 days storage, the percentage of mortality was 35%.
The dispersal ability were influenced directly by the temperatures and indirectly by prey densities. Higher temperature usually induced the higher dispersal activity. The predator and prey densities exerted influence on the dispersal ability of the predator. Normally, the higher prey density will cause the lower dispersal ability of the predator, but the higher predator density induced higher dispersal activity.
Nymphs and eggs of kanzawa and two-spotted spider mites are good for the development of postembryonic stages of the predator, but the effect on oviposition rate, kanzawa spider mite appeared to be favorable food for adult predators. The average consumption of one pair predators on kanzawa spider mite or two-spotted spider mite during the whole adult stage were 869 and 525, respectively. The mean eggs laid per female predator fed with kanzawa spider mite, or two-spotted spider mite were 61 .2 and 52.5, respectively.
The consumption of nymphs of kanzawa spider mite per predator rose with high prey densities, but of two-spotted spider mite per predator rose at beginning with relatively low prey densities, and then significantly decreased at higher prey densities. The above results may be concluded from the prey preference.
Biological control of the kanzawa spider mite on strawberry was investigated at Taichung during 1981. Mass releases of A. longispinosus were made at the equivalent rate of 2/plant, 5/plant, 10/plant, and 20/plant and control with 5 plots and 4 replications. The mean numbers of spider mites in the different rate release plots were significantly different from the contol from Feb. 26 through Mar. 26, the high-rate release plots (20/plant and 10/plant) were also significantly different from the low-rate release plots (5/plant and 2/plant). The predator populations reached a peak of 7.2 and 6.6/leaf in the 20/plant and 10/plant release plots on Mar. 12, respectively. The populations of predator reached a peak of 3.5/leaf in the 5/plant release plot on Mar. 9, and 3.7/leaf in the 2/plant release plot on Mar. 26.
Biological control of the two-spotted spider mite on strawberry was investigated in Miouli during 1981. Mass releases of A. longispinosus were made at the rate of 10/plant. It gave poor control results, only on the field with low prey density (13/leaf) the predator could suppress the growth of prey population within 2 weeks.
|Appears in Collections:||1.台灣農業研究(1950～迄今)|
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