|Title:||各種元素對高粱紋桔病菌(Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-1)的影響
The effect of nutrient condition on Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-1 caused sorghum sheath blight
|Keywords:||高粱;Rhizoctonia solani;營養缺乏;致病力;肥料;sorghum;Rhizoctonia solani Kühn;nutrient-deficiency;virulence;fertilizer||Issue Date:||Dec-1990||Publisher:||植物保護學會||Journal Volume:||32||Journal Issue:||4||Start page/Pages:||265-276||Source:||植物保護學會會刊||Abstract:||
Rhizoctonia solani AG-1培養在缺氮、磷、鉀、鈣或矽的培養基上，菌絲生長速率由30.8至37.7（毫米／天）不等，其中在缺氮、鉀或鈣的狀態下，生長速率緩慢與對照組呈顯著差異(p=0.05)；菌核形成的數目，由10至142個（菌核／平板）不等，其中於缺氮或磷狀態下，菌核形成遭受抑制，而缺氮或鈣時，菌核的百粒重最輕，分別比對照組減少了31.2％和34.1%，但在缺矽的情況下菌核形成數目最多，且百粒重比對照組多42.8％。將R. solani培養於各種元素缺乏營養液中三星期後，在缺氮、缺磷或缺鉀的情形下菌絲生長不良，且菌絲乾重量與對照組呈明顯差異(p=0.05)。將本菌在元素缺乏營養液中連續移殖培養五次後，對高粱幼苗或成株的致病力無降低或喪失的效用。在處理0.1%(w/w)尿素和碳酸鈣肥料之土壤平板上，R. solani的生長會受到抑制。將0.1%(w/w)硫酸銨、過磷酸鈣、氯化鉀、碳酸鈣和矽酸等肥料分別處理含R. solani的土壤，發現在各種肥料處理第三個星期時，其族群數量有卜降的趨勢，然而除碳酸鈣處理土壤中的族群與數量回復較慢外，其餘各處理於七星期後都有回昇至原來數量的趨勢。高粱的生長會受到營養供應的影響，在缺氮、磷或鉀的營養下栽培時，植株生長不良，且對R. solani的為害毫無抵抗性，而噴施完全之營養液可使產量明顯地比對照組增加，且可抑制紋枯病的病勢發展。
The growth rate of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 in element-deficient nutrient media was ranged from 30.8 to 37.7 mm/day. When pathogen was cultured in either nitrogendeficient, potassium-deficient or calcium-deficient media, the growth rate was slow and significantly different from control. The number of scierotia in all media was different from one another. They were ranged from 10 to 140 sclerotia /plate. The formation of scierotia was significantly inhibited when R. solani was culture under nitrogen- or phosphorus-deficient media. The weight of one hundred scierotia which were harvested from nitrogen- or calcium-deficient media. They were reduced to 31.2% and 34.1%, respectively, compared to control. However; under silicon-deficient media, the number of scierotia was the most and the weight of one hundred scierotia was 42.8% more than control. When R. solani was cultured in element-deficient solutions for three weeks, the dry weight of mycelium was significantly different from control when it was cultured under either nitrogen-, phosphorus- or potassium-deficient medium. When R. solani was cultured in element-deficient solution and was continuously transferred into same fresh culture solution every week for 5 times, the virulence of pathogen to sorghum was not declined or lost. The soil plates applied with either 0.1% (w/w) urea or calcium carbonate were strongly inhibitory to the growth of R. solani. The soil amended with either 0.1% (w/w) (NH4)2S04, Ca(H2PO4)2, KCl, CaCO3, or Si02, respectively, could reduce the population of R. solani after 3 weeks of culturing, but the population could recover in all teatments except the treatment of CaCO3 after 7 weeks. Applying nutrition could affect the growth of plants. When sorghum was cultured under either nitrgen-, phosphorus-, or potassium-deficient condititon, it grew so poorly that R. solani could be easily to infect them and cause serious disease. However, Leaves applyed with nutrient solution decreased the disease severity and increased the yield of sorghum significantly.
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