|Title:||稻作經營組織化之問題與對策||Other Titles:||Problems on Systematizing Rice Farm Organization and Their Countermeasure||Authors:||鄭詩華
|Keywords:||農業經營||Issue Date:||Jun-1995||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||171-184||Source:||農業試驗所特刊;第53號||Conference:||農業經營調適研討會專刊||Abstract:||
稻作農業生產組織的型態有輔助的生產組織、營農集團等中間組織及共同經營等類型，而中間組織及共同經營又可分為少數農家、多數農家及地區性的組織型態，各種組織型態之生產因素所有型態、組織化的方向及經營決策機構的性質均有不同。受託型少數農家營農集團˙共同經營發展的課題為以分工為基礎，再以共同的方式促進生產力的提昇及經營管理。其解決對策為作業管理、能提高產量之栽培管理等生產管理、土地利用調整之土地管理、有計畫且合理調度資金的財務管理及提高構成員自主性之勞動管理等。複合型多數農家營農集團• 共同經營發展的課題為構成員的異質化與組織調整及衝突的解決等。其解決對策為加強共識的形成，而且經過逐次且不斷地努力，經由組織變革、經營改善以強化經營主體的條件。地區型營農集團˙共同經營發展的課題為構成員之異質化與組織重組。其解決對策為集落的土地管理機能及生產效率追求的經營管理機能二者必須取得均衡，同時要改善地區生產基本環境、確保稻作機械化體系之適當作業規模、以分工為基礎進行共同作業以形成有效率的作業組織、配置合理的作物制度等以提高生產力，此時地區領導者的存在與功能的發揮至為重要。稻作經營發展的共同課題是耕地零細˙分散˙錯圃制的克服，解決的對策是發揮地區農村社會的村落倫理，取得地區內各經營主體間之信賴，此時地方自治單位（如縣市政府、鄉鎮公所）及農民團體（如農會、地區土地管理• 調整組織）等應給予協助及輔導，而在中央及省等政府部門則應訂立明確的政策（如農業發展政策），建立有效制度（如農地利用權設定制度、農業區劃定制度、農業生產法人制度）及組織（如農地委員會組織）的強化，並配合農業制度金融及加強農業推廣的實施。
This paper discusses the background and significance of rice farm organization, its various types, its problems and their countermeasures. This study is aimed at contributing to the promotion of systematization in the organization of rice farm operations in Taiwan.
The organization of rice farming operations can be classified into the following types auxiliary production type, intermediary organizations like farming groups and the joint operation type. The last two types are further subdivided into the small-group, largegroup and regional types. These various types differ in the ownership of factors of production, the general direction of farm organization and the economic decision structure. Small farming groups offering commissioned services conduct joint operations involving division of labor, the joint promotion of increase in productivity and joint administration. Steps involved in these joint operations include production administration such as farming management and cultivation management aimed at increasing harvest, land administration such as adjustmnt of land utilization, financial administration requiring well-planned and well-allocated funding and labor management aimed at members¡¦ autonomy. In the case of the complex-type large farm group, issues of common concern on operations and development include such problems as member farms¡¦ operational transformation, organizational restructuring and solution of conflicts. Solution and countermeasures to these problems involve fostering consenous and the strengthening of the operations structure (system) through repeated efforts ranging from organizational reforii to improvement in their operation. Lastly, in the case of regional farming groups, issues of common concern are member farms¡¦ transformation and organizational restructuring. Solutions and countermeasures include maintaining an equilibrium between collective land administrative function and production efficiency administrative function. At the same time, these issues also call for improvement of the basic production environment within the region and an appropriate scale of automated farming operations, efficient joint operations basic production environment within the region and an appropriate scale of automated farming operations, effcient joint operations based on division of labor, reasonable farming system and other measures which could help increase productivity. At this point, regional leaders play an important role. Common areas of concern include such issues as isolated and small-sized farm lands and dispersed locations. Solutions involve such measures as promoting consciousness of rural ethics in the regional rural society and fomenting trust among different parties operating in the region. At this point, assistance and guidance from local authorities (such as county and city governments, municipal and town halls )and farmers¡¦ groupings (such as farm cooperatives and local land administrative agencies)are needed. Clear policies (such as agricultural development policies) must be set by the Central and Provincial Governments to assist in establishing efficient systems (such as systems for setting farm land utilization rights, farm land zoning system and systems governing farm production legal entities) and strengthening organizations such as farm land committees, all these must be synchronized with government policies on financing and promotion of the agriculture industry.
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