|Title:||落花生育種||Other Titles:||Improvement of Peanut Varieties||Authors:||陳國憲
|Keywords:||落花生;品種;育種;peanut;varieties;breeding||Issue Date:||Oct-2015||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Issue:||102||Start page/Pages:||13-22||Source:||雜糧作物試驗研究年報||Abstract:||
落花生育種為長期性試驗工作。本試驗利用雜交育種方法，以選育食味佳、豐產、大粒、耐病蟲害與適合機械化栽培的優良品種為目標。本年度(101 年秋作至102 年春作)結果摘如下：(1)進行人工雜交12 個組合，共獲得雜交種子1,230 粒。(2)以混合法分別培育2010~2012年間各期作的雜交後代，並於F5 世代依照育種目標及莢果數目、大小、與形狀選拔714 優良單株。(3)品系第一年試驗，試驗結果，株行試驗有108 個品系晉級，二行試驗有41 個品系晉級。(4)品系第二年試驗，試驗結果，101 年秋作有NS011001 等20 個品系，乾莢果產量高於對照地方種紅仁，NS012011 等11 個品系，乾莢果產量高於對照品種台南16 號。102 年春作有NS011016 等17 個品系，乾莢果產量高於對照地方種紅仁。(5)進行品系第三年試驗，101年秋作第Ⅱ組在元長子茂試區試驗結果有NS011044 等2 個品系乾莢果產量較對照品種台南17 號高。102 年春作第Ⅰ組元長試區試驗結果有NS09044 等8 個品系較對照種台南14 號高。第Ⅱ組元長子茂試區試驗結果，有NS011045 等2 個品系較對照品種台南17 號高; 元長東庄試區試驗結果有NS011042 等6 個品系較對照品種台南17 號高。
Our overall objective of peanut breeding program is to develop peanut cultivars that is profitable to producers, and acceptable to processors and consumers. Currently, specific breeding objective is the development of peanut cultivates with large seed mass, high yield and resistant to diseases. The results of this fiscal year's experiment were summarized as follows. (1) Twelve crosses between the large-seeded germplasm lines high yielding and best quality cultivates were made and 1,230 of F1 seeds were obtained. (2) Bulk method was used to handle the segregation generations of artificial hybridizations made in 2010~2012. A total of 770 plants in F5 generation was selected on the basis of pod yield, pod size and pod shape. (3) There were 108 promising strains in plant-to-row trial and 41 promising strains in the first year yield trial. (4) In the intermediate yield trial, in the fall crop season of 2012, Pod yield of 20 promising strains included NS011001 had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Red-skins local cultivar, and 11 promising strains included NS012011 had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No.16. In the spring crop season of 2013, 17 promising strains included NS011016 had significantly higher pod yield than the check Red-skins local cultivar. (5) Promising strains were evaluated in a series of trials conducted at the experimental farm of Yunlin-Hsien, the major peanut production area to further test their yielding stability in diverse growing environments. In the fall crop season of 2012, 2 promising strains included NS011044 in Yuan-Chang-Zih-mao area were selected at class Ⅱ test because of their significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No. 17. In the spring crop season of 2013, 8 promising strains included NS09044 in Yuan-Chang area were selected at class Ⅰ test because of their significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No. 14. Two promising strains included NS011045 at the other farm in Yuan-Chang area and 6 promising strains, NS011042 in Yuan-Chang-Jhong-huang were selected at class Ⅱ test by their significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No. 17.
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