|Title:||落花生育種||Other Titles:||Improvement of Peanut Varieties||Authors:||陳國憲
Kuo Hsien Chen
Sheng Shan Wang
|Keywords:||落花生;品種;育種;peanut;varieties;breeding||Issue Date:||Oct-2014||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Issue:||101||Start page/Pages:||12-21||Source:||雜糧作物試驗研究年報||Abstract:||
落花生育種為長期性試驗工作。本試驗利用雜交育種方法，以選育食味佳、豐產、大粒、耐病蟲害與適合機械化栽培的優良品種為目標。本年度(100 年秋作至101 年春作 )工作包括：(1)進行人工雜交10 個組合，共獲得雜交種子962 粒。(2)以混合法分別培育2009~2012 年間各期作的雜交後代，並於F5 世代依照育種目標及莢果數目、大小、與形狀選拔291 優良單株。(3)進行品系第一年試驗，試驗結果，株行試驗有114 個品系晉級，二行試驗有79 個品系晉級。(4)進行品系第二年試驗，試驗結果，100 年秋作有NS011009 等10 個品系，乾莢果產量較對照品種台南17 號高。101 年春作分別有NS012001 等23 個品系及NS012041 等1 個品系，乾莢果產量較對照種地方種紅仁及台南16 號高。(5)進行品系第三年試驗，100 年秋作第Ⅰ組在元長試區試驗結果有有S09013 等8 個品系，較對照品種台南14 號高。四湖試區NS09017等7 個品系之乾莢果產量較對照品種台南14 號高。第Ⅱ組在元長試區試驗結果有NS011067等9 個品系，較對照品種台南14 號高；四湖試區則有NS011067 等9 個品系較對照品種台南14 號高。101 年春作第Ⅰ組元長試區試驗結果有NS009044 等4 個品系較對照種台南14 號為高。第Ⅱ組元長試區試驗結果，有NS011017 等1 個品系較對照品種台南17 號高;四湖試區試驗結果有NS011009 等9 個品系較對照品種台南17 號高。
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding is a long-term experiment in Tainan District Agricultural Research & Extension Station (Tainan DARES). Our overall objective of peanut breeding program is to develop peanut cultivars that is profitable to producers, and acceptable to processors and consumers. Currently, specific breeding objective is the development of peanut cultivates with large seed mass, high yield and resistant to diseases. The results of this fiscal year's experiment were summarized as follows.
1) Ten crosses between the large-seeded germplasm lines high yielding and best quality cultivates were made and 962 of F1 seeds were obtained.
2) Bulk method was used to handle the segregation generations of artificial hybridizations made in 2009~2012. A total of 291 plants in F5 generation was selected on the basis of pod yield, pod size and pod shape.
3) There were 114 promising strains in plant-to-row trial and 79 promising strains in the first year yield trial.
4) In the intermediate yield trial, in the fall crop season of 2011, Pod yield of 10 promising strains included NS011009 had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan 17. In the spring crop season of 2012, 23 promising strains included NS012001 had significantly higher pod yield than the check local cultivar “Red-skin” and & one promising strains included NS012041 had significantly higher pod yield than the check Tainan 16.
5) Promising strains were evaluated in a series of trials conducted at the experimental farm of Tainan DARES and/or Yunlin-Hsien, the major peanut production area to further test their yielding stability in diverse growing environments. In the fall crop season of 2011, 8 promising strains included NS09013 in Yuan-Chang area and 7 promising strains included NS09017, in Su-Hu area were selected at class Ⅰ test because of their significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan 14. In class Ⅱ, 9 promising strains included NS011067 at the other farm in Yuan-Chang area and 9 promising strains included NS011067, in Su-Hu area had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan 14. In the spring crop season of 2012, 4 promising strains included NS009044, in Yuan-Chang area had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan 14 at class Ⅰ test. In class Ⅱ, one promising strains included NS011017 in Yuan-Chang area and 9 promising strains included NS011009, in Su-Hu area had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan 17.
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