|Title:||落花生育種||Other Titles:||Improvement of Peanut Varieties||Authors:||陳國憲
Kuo Hsien Chen
Ai Hua Yang
|Keywords:||落花生;品種;育種;peanut;varieties;breeding||Issue Date:||Sep-2011||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Issue:||98||Start page/Pages:||47-57||Source:||雜糧作物試驗研究年報||Abstract:||
落花生育種為長期性試驗工作。本試驗利用雜交育種方法，以選育食味佳、豐產、大粒、耐病蟲害與適合機械化栽培的優良品種為目標。本年度(97 年秋作至98 年春作)工作包括：(1)進行人工雜交8 組合，共獲得雜交種子844 粒。(2)以混合法分別培育2006~2009 年間各期作的雜交後代，並於F5 世代依照育種目標及莢果數目、大小、與形狀選拔2,131 優良單株。(3)進行品系第一年試驗，試驗結果，株行試驗有483 品系晉級，二行試驗有111 品系晉級。(4)進行品系第二年試驗，試驗結果，97 年秋作有NS07100 等11 品系，98 年春作有NS0930等11 品系乾莢果產量高於對照品種台南14 號。 (5)進行品系第三年試驗，97 年秋作第Ⅰ組在元長試區試驗結果有NS0729 等3 品系，四湖試區NS0785 等2 品系之乾莢果產量較對照品種台南14 號高。第Ⅱ組在元長試區試驗結果有NS0760 等5 品系，較對照地方種黑金剛高；四湖試區則有NS0770 等2 品系較對照地方種黑金剛高。98 年春作第Ⅰ組元長試區試驗結果有NS0780 等7 品系較對照種台南14 號為高；四湖試區有NS0780 等7 品系較對照品種台南14 號高。第Ⅱ組元長試區試驗結果，有NS0804 等8 品系較對照品種台南14 號高;四湖試區試驗結果有NS0805 等3 品系較對照品種台南14 號高。
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding is a long-term experiment in Tainan District Agricultural Research & Extension Station (Tainan DARES). Our overall objective of peanut breeding program is to develop peanut cultivars that is profitable to producers, and acceptable to processors and consumers. Currently, specific breeding objective is the development of peanut cultivates with large seed mass, high yield and resistant to diseases. The results of this fiscal year's experiment were summarized as follows.
1) Eight crosses between the large-seeded germplasm lines high yielding and best quality cultivates were made and 844 of F1 seeds were obtained.
2) Bulk method was used to handle the segregation generations of artificial hybridizations made in 2006~2009. A total of 2,131 plants in F5 generation was selected on the basis of pod yield, pod size and pod shape.
3) There were 483 promising strains in plant-to-row trial and 111 promising strains in the first year yield trial.
4) In the intermediate yield trial, in the fall crop season of 2008, Pod yield of 11 promising strains included NS07100 had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No.14. In the spring crop season of 2009, 11 promising strains included NS0930 had significantly higher pod yield than the check Tainan No.14.
5) Promising strains were evaluated in a series of trials conducted at the experimental farm of Tainan DARES and/or Yunlin-Hsien, the major peanut production area to further test their yielding stability in diverse growing environments. In the fall crop season of 2008, 3 promising strains included NS0729 in Yuanchang area and 2 promising strains included NS0785, in Su-Hu area were selected at classⅠtest because of their significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No. 14. In class Ⅱ, Pod yield of 5 promising strains included NS0760 at the other farm in Yuanchang area and 2 promising strains included NS0770, in Su-Hu area had significantly higher pod yield than the check, Black-Kong. In the spring crop season of 2009, 7 promising strains included NS0780 in Yuanchang area and 7 promising strains included NS0780, in Su-Hu area were selected at classⅠtest because of their significantly higher pod yield than the check, Tainan No. 14. Eight promising strains included NS0804 at the other farm in Yuanchang area and 3 promising strains such as NS0805 in Su-Hu were selected at class Ⅱ test by their significantly higher pod yield than the check , Tainan No. 14.
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