|Title:||薏苡與蕎麥品種改良||Other Titles:||Selection and Improvement of Adlay and Buckwheat Varieties||Authors:||曾勝雄
|Keywords:||薏苡;蕎麥;品種改良;Job’s-tear;buckwheat;varietal improvement||Issue Date:||Oct-2008||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Journal Issue:||95||Start page/Pages:||179-189||Source:||雜糧作物試驗研究年報||Abstract:||
為提高國產薏苡及蕎麥單位面積產量，於95 年進行薏苡品種改良包括薏苡雜交育種、新品系比較及新品系區域試驗。蕎麥品種選育包括新引進品系觀察及比較試驗。蕎麥台中育19 號及薏苡台中育6 號分別於94 年12 月20 日及95 年7 月7 日獲准登記命名為蕎麥台中2 號及薏苡台中2 號。95 年薏苡新品系區域試驗結果，以台中育15、17、18 及19 號之表現最佳，比台中1 號增加2.8%、26.2%、25.0%及22.0%。93~95 年薏苡新品系比較試驗結果，以台中試19 號、24 及25 號之表現最佳，分別比台中1 號增加19.5%、24.1%及24.9%。95 年春作進行薏苡台中1 號×台中試12號等5 組合之雜交工作，每組合各獲得62-117 粒雜交種子；培育C1 種子，計有6組合，每組合各獲得570-754 公克種子；進行C2-6 29 組合後代培育，每組合各獲得4.3-17.2%之優良單株。蕎麥新引進品系觀察試驗結果，以CIFA35、NSC42857 及81333 等3 品系之表現較佳，比台中1 號增加9.7%、4.4%及9.6%；蕎麥新引進品系比較試驗結果以CIFA2、PA-135 及NSC52519 等3 品系之表現最佳，比台中1 號增加20.1%、19.9%及17.2%。
In order to increase the unit productivity of domestic adlay and buckwheat crops, varieties improvement works were conducted in 2005. Adlay experiments include hybridization, progeny selection, new line yield trial, sowing date trial, trials on cultivation density and nitrogen application rate and trials on nitrogen fertilizers application method. In this year, 5 hybridization combinations were made including “Taichung No. 1 × Okayama No. 3”. In each combination, 67 - 118 hybrid seeds were obtained, hybrid seeds of the 5 combinations were cultivated and 106 – 230 g seeds were obtained. These descent seed were further cultivated 27 combinations in C2-C6 generation. Each combination obtained 3.7 - 16.0 % elite plants. All 14 adlay lines showed higher productivity than the control, Taichung No. 1. Especially TC 93-4, TC 93-9, TC 93-10 and TC93-12 are superior than the control by 17.9%, 26.4%, 19.1% and 25.3%, respectively. The recommended sowing date was in February for higher grain yield. For planting density, the spacings of 40×10 cm were better than 60×20 cm in terms of improved grain yield. The nitrogen requirement by job’s-tears was high as yield increase was significant, when rate of N fertilization was adjusted from 180 to 220 kg/ha. Split top dressing of nitrogen fertilizer for three to four times during the period from panicle formation to complete heading were suggested due to high N demand by the plants during grain ripening.
Buckwheat experiments include observation and comparison trial. From the observstion trials, 3 lines, Viz, CIFA, NSC 42857 and NSC 81333 were selected among 10 lines. There are 4 buckwheat lines had 17.2% - 22.6 % higher yield than the control, Taichung No. 1.
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