|Title:||餘甘子品種「苗栗1號」及「苗栗2號」之育成||Other Titles:||Breeding of Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) varieties “Miaoli 1” and “Miaoli 2”||Authors:||賴瑞聲
|Keywords:||餘甘子;品種;抗氧化;沒食子酸苷;Phyllanthus emblica L.;variety;antioxidant capacity;β-glucogallin||Issue Date:||Jun-2020||Publisher:||苗栗區農業改良場||Journal Issue:||9||Start page/Pages:||30-45||Source:||苗栗區農業改良場研究彙報||Abstract:||
餘甘子(Phyllanthus emblica L.)為葉下珠科(Phyllanthaceae)油柑屬植物，為一種食用兼藥用果樹，其藥用保健應用值得我們重視。由於雌雄異花特性，以種子育苗之植株在外觀性狀及果實特性存在明顯變異。苗栗區農業改良場自2008年起進行台灣地方品系種原收集，經科學化研究、變異觀察及產業應用評估，朝鮮食及保健加工二個方向分別進行品種選育。本研究以臺中太平地方品種TT01為對照品種，選育鮮食及膳食利用潛力品系TS02（命名為餘甘子「苗栗1號」，商品名為綠晶鑽），其特色在於果實較大（約7.6 g），外觀青綠色且不易木栓化，口感鬆脆且低酸澀風味（推廣於鮮果、蜜餞及膳食應用），可提高消費者食用接受度。「苗栗1號」略有砧負情形，生長勢較弱，修剪後生長速度較慢，新梢枝條短，不宜強度修剪。另選育保健加工潛力品系MG03，命名為「苗栗2號」，商品名為優甘鑽，其總酚及總黃酮含量最高且ORAC抗氧化能力表現最佳，經機能成分HPLC分析，「苗栗2號」有較高的沒食子酸(gallic acid)及沒食子酸苷(β-glucogallin)含量，在外觀性狀方面，「苗栗2號」品系之葉片較為細長，末端幾乎無刻裂，單株結果數量多，但果實較小，且外觀容易有木栓化情形，另其食用口感較硬且苦澀味重，將推廣應用於保健產品加工原料。「苗栗2號」生長勢強，容易萌發叢側芽，需適度修剪以減少蟲害，此外，其新梢生長量多且枝條長，宜提高冬季修剪程度，以保持良好樹型。
Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) belonged to the family Phyllanthceae is a well-known edible and medicinal fruit tree. Due to the dioecious tree, the plants from seedlings exist significant variation in appearance and fruit characteristics. In recent decades, domestic and foreign market pay more attention to the medicinal applications of emblica. We have carried out the collection and scientific research of domestic emblica germplasm in Taiwan since 2008 in Miaoli District Agricultural Research and Extension Station (MDARES). Through germplasm collection, variation investigation and industrial application evaluation, the varieties are bred for the two directions of fresh food and health care processing. During the breeding, local clore TT01 from Taiping district Taichung was used as a control clore. And the fresh and dietary utilization potential line TS02 was selected that was named as emblica “Miaoli No. 1” by MADRES, and the product green crystal diamond was officially promoted in fresh fruit, candied fruit and dietary application. The characteristic of “Miaoli No. 1” had the slightly larger fruit (about 7.6 g), whie green appearance and not easy to be corked, and the taste was crisp and low-sour flavor. It can elevate consumers' acceptance of emblica fruit. “Miaoli No. 1” has a slight anvil negative condition, the growth potential is weak, the growth rate is slow after pruning, the new branch is short, and it is not suitable for intensity pruning. Health care processing potential line MG03 with the highest content of total phenols and total flavonoids, ORAC antioxidant performance was selected. And line MG03 has higher gallic acid and β-glucogallin content via HPLC analysis. About the appearance traits, the blade of the MG03 line are relatively slender, with almost no cracks at the ends. And the fruit of individual plant is numerous, but the fruits were small. The fruit appearance is prone to cork formation and the taste of the fruit is hard with bitter taste. It was named by MADRES as emblica “Miaoli No. 2”, which will be applied to the processing of health card products. “Miaoli No. 2”has strong growth potential and is easy to germinate the lateral buds of the plexus. It needs moderate pruning to reduce pests. Due to more new shoots and longer branches, it is better to increase the degree of winter pruning to maintain a good tree shape.
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