|Experiment on Cultural Machinery for Jute
T. C. Chen
S. R. Shieh
A. Under the results of this study, following machines and implements have been tested and found to be useful for the cultivation of jute in Taiwan, they are:
1.Two types of seeding machines for jute, attached to a power-tiller and to a animal plow, are ready for extension. When shutter slide of the hopper was adjusted on first opening 6 kg/ha of jute seed which nearly equal to the amount of conventional seeding method used by the local farmers was obtained.
2.By using power-tiller mounted seeding machine for sowing small seeds, its vibration would affect the rate of seeding, the wider the opening of shutter slide of the hopper, the greater the variation coefficient of the rate of seeding. Thus the even broadcasting and the rate of seeding machine manufacturer should pay more attention to this effect in order to improving its seeding efficiency.
3.Animal plow type seeder is rather simple, less expensive and easy to operate. The rate and uniformity of seeding can also be precisely controlled. It would reduce the missing hills and increase jute yield by use of this type machine. During the transitional period that the animal pawer has not been completely replace by powered farming, this device deserves its valuation for extension.
4.Up to present time, commercial fertilizer applicator still has its trouble to apply mixed powder fertilizer of ammonia sulfate, potassium chloride and calcium super phosphate. Further study of this kind of machine for practical purpose is required.
5.For weeding and cultivation, a blade was modified as a weeding-cultivation knife installing on a power-tiller instead of tillage knife. It works well for shallow weeding.
6.For earth bank up, the best way is to fix the commercial small soil ditcher on the position between tillage knife an rear wheel of tiller in order to loosen soil first and then earth bank up.
7.For peeling jute, please refer to the "Tainan F.C.E.S. Type C. Power Decorticator" developed by "Tainan Fiber Crops Experiment Station" published by this station. This machine is available for extension.
8.A modified American made pettit's Type Washing machine is being used in this station. But it is not suitable for the farmers in this Island because of its big size, costly and low efficiency.
B. For convenient operation of machine in the jute field in Taiwan, conventional drilling of 50cm. was shifted to 20 cm. in width and the distance between rows was widened to 100cm. By this cultural change, there was not only to increase the fiber yield but also raise the jute quality due to the increase of the number of plants per unit area.
C. In jute culture, it still has no suitable thinning machine for removal of unnecessary seedling as well as for individual spacing weeding and fertilization of young seedlings. As spacing weeding is a labor-consuming work, it counts 87.2﹪ of the total work-hour in the first time of weeding and thinning.
D. The most expensive process for jute culture is peeling and harvesting. Nevertherless 60 working hours were saved for 10 are in harvest by using peeling machine in stead of handy peeling, it still needs many labors to cut down jute plant. Therefore, the total work-hour for harvesting and peeling is greater than that of any?other one kind of implement and counts more than 30﹪ of the total working hour for jute culture.
E. By the extension of mechanized jute culture, it not only can cut down the labor and production cost but also will increase the planting density, fiber yield and jute quality. The development of cultural machine for jute is eventually an important progress in improving jute quality in Taiwan.
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