|Title:||綠竹筍採收後處理與貯運技術改進||Other Titles:||Studies on Postharvest Technique and Marketing of Bamboo Shoot (Bambusa oldhami Munro)||Authors:||張粲如
|Keywords:||綠竹筍;預冷;包裝;貯藏;海運外銷;Bamboo shoot (Bambusa oldhami Munro);precooling;package;storage;export by sea||Issue Date:||Dec-2005||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第117號||Start page/Pages:||91-100||Source:||園產品採後處理技術之研究與應用研討會專刊||Conference:||園產品採後處理技術之研究與應用研討會
Proceedings of A Symposium on Research and Application of Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops
本試驗旨在探討綠竹筍(Bambusa oldhami Munro)採收後適當的預冷、包裝方法及貯藏條件，使適合海運方式外銷，降低運費；以台北縣五股鄉的綠竹筍為材料，進行冰水預冷、強風壓差預冷，包裝數量與包裝袋內加乙烯吸收劑對品質之效應及貯藏試驗，於貯藏期間調查失水率，可溶性固形物含量、維他命C 含量，筍切面之硬度與顏色變化及官能品評。
結果顯示，冰水預冷之降溫速率較快，但可溶性固形物及維他命C 稍有流失於水，且水中微生物易污染；強風壓差預冷降溫速率較慢，但成分不會流失，減少微生物污染。最好的預冷方法是先以冰水預冷20~30 分鐘接著以強風壓差預冷20 分鐘，預冷後以厚度0.06mm PE袋包裝，具有氣變貯藏的效應，對可溶性固形物及維他命C 保存較好，且筍切面色澤變化較小；每袋包裝8 支比包裝5 支之品質差，因為產生無氧呼吸而有異味。包裝袋內加乙烯吸收劑，在25℃高溫時，會增加失水率、褐化程度及纖維化，貯藏期限僅3 天；在0℃及5℃低溫貯藏時，對品質的影響呈差異不顯著，可以不需加乙烯吸收劑，保鮮期21 天。依上述最適條件，實際辦理新鮮綠竹筍海運試銷日本，並先通過農委會防檢局之檢疫，以20 呎貨櫃海運，溫度為1℃，全程溫控良好，卸貨時，調查品質，可溶性固形物仍達7°Brix，切口無褐化，輕微纖維化，經估算海運費用比空運降低88.8%。改進採收後處理技術，綠竹筍海運外銷是具有潛力的。
In order to study the suitable condition of precooling, package and storage for exporting bamboo shoot by sea, the experiments were studied with bamboo shoot produced in Wu-Ku county of Taipei prefecture. Hydrocooling, forced-air cooling, packing amount and ethylene scrubber in PE bag, as well as the storage condition were studied, also the evaluation of water loss, soluble solid content, ascorbic acid content, firmness and color change of cut surface, as well as penel test were investigated. The results were shown that hydrocooling had cool down temperature faster than forced-air cooling, while the former method would loss more soluble solid and ascorbic acid than the later method, the best precooling method is first precool 20 minutes with drocooling, then precool 20 minutes with forced air cooling, after that, bamboo shoots were packed with PE bag of 0.06mm hickness, it had the effect of modified atmosphere strorage, kept the soluble solid content and ascorbic acid, as well as less change in color of cut surface. The packing amount of eight pieces of bamboo shoot was worse than that of five pieces, for anaerobic respiration occurred, consequently it gave off-odor. The ethylene scrubber in PE bag could increase water loss at 25℃, while it could decrease browing and toughness, only for three days storage, but there is no significant difference in quality at both 0℃ and 5℃, even no ethylene scrubber, the bamboo shoots could keep fresh for 21 days.
The above methods were applied to export bamboo shoot to Japan by sea. The bamboo shoots were inspected by the Bureau of animal and plant health inspection and quarantine, COA ., then they were transported with 20’ steel dry cargo container by sea under temperature 1℃. Through 16 days transportation, the commodities were kept with good quality, it showed 7°Brix, without browning, just a little bit toughening. The expense of transporting by sea is lower 88.8﹪than that of transporting by air.
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