|Title:||台灣玉米栽培技術之改進||Other Titles:||The Improvement of Cultural Practices for Corn Production in Taiwan||Authors:||曾清田
|Keywords:||玉米;栽培技術;不整地栽培;施肥;輪作;玉米螟;Corn;Cultural practice;Non-tillage;Fertilization;Cropping system;Corn borer||Issue Date:||May-1995||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||43-60||Source:||農業試驗所特刊第49號||Conference:||雜糧作物生產技術改進研討會專刊||Abstract:||
In the last decade the improved cultural practices on field corn with significant effectiveness included (1) non-tillage cultivation; (2) two-layer fertilizer application; (3) cropping system adjustment; and (4) integrated control of the Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis). Non-tillage cultivation had been widely practiced in eastern area. The experimental results of Taitung DAIS and Hualien DAIS indicated that non-tillage cultivation reduced the number of lodged plants, increased grain yield and net return by 5-7% and 3 1-60% , respectively as compared with tillage cultivation. Two-layer fertilizer application technique was designed to simplify and reduce the labor cost for fertilizer application. This cultivation technique had been prevalently adopted in the major corn production area islandwide. According to the experimental report of Hualien DAIS, the practice of two-layer fertilizer application increased grain yield by 6% as compared with conventional fertilizer application. In order to increase the efficiency of water use and land resources, the cropping system of rice-sesbania-corn had been introduced in Yun-ChiaNan areas. The 5-year experimental results provided by Tainan DAIS indicated that practicing the cropping system of rice-sesbania-corn increased corn grain yied in fall crop by 31 % as compared with the rotation pattern of rice- soybean-corn. Applying integrated control (release of Trichogramma ostriniae four times each with 75 egg sheets/ha combined with 2 insecticide treatments at the early whorl and the lately whorl stages) was much more effective in decreasing the percentage of damaged plants and increasing the grain yield per hectare than the conventional control (i.e., insecticide treatments applied from the early whorl to the pollen shedding stages at an interval of 7 to 10 days). According to field survey of Ostriniae furnacalis population density with virgin female traps in Chiayi area showed that the Asian corn borer had been dropped from 7.2 moths/trap in 1985 to 4.8 moths/trap in 1990. It was obviously that in the long term of large scale and mass release of T. ostriniae had obtained accumulative suppression of the Asian corn borer population density in Chiayi area.
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