Variety Improvement of Bananas
|Keywords:||香蕉;育種;種源;雜交育種;體細胞變異;果樹育種研習會專刊;Musa;bananas;breeding;germplasm;hybridization;somaclonal variation||Issue Date:||Jun-1993||Publisher:||台中：農業試驗所||Start page/Pages:||57-75||Source:||果樹育種研習會專刊:||Abstract:||
香蕉為世界重要水果之一，更是台灣最重要外銷水果。因香蕉為三倍體植物，具高度不稔性，靠無性繁殖，因此造成雜交育種上的困難。本文討論香蕉栽培種的分類和演變假說，進而報導國內外有關香蕉品種種源之收集，保存和利用。牙買加／千里達於1922年開始奠定香蕉雜交育種之方法，目前以宏都拉斯的育種研究為最積極。育種目標以抗病及矮化為主。育種方法分：二倍體的改良，初級四倍體及次級三倍體的選育。宏都拉斯的研究在二倍體改良已有良好成果，唯至目前，仍未育成優良之四倍體或三體倍足以取代現有的商業化品種。本省以組織培養法繁苗，從體細胞變異（somac1onal variation）中進行抗黃葉病（Fusarium wilt, race 4）的篩選，選出10中等至高抗病品系，其中以GCTCV-215最具推廣潛力。最後，本文對傳統及利用體細胞變異作選種的方法加以比較，並探討細胞融合及花藥培養對香蕉品種改良的可行性。
Banana is one of the most important fruit crops in the world and is the most important fruit crop for export in Taiwan. Due to the triploid nature of bananas which is highly sterile, asexual propagation is the method for reproduction. Because of this, the breeding work of bananas is some how difficult. This paper reviews the classification and the hypothesis of evolution of cultivated bananas. Germplasm collection, preservation and utilization are also reported. The earliest banana breeding program was started in Jamaica and Trinidad in 1922. At present the program in Honduras is the most active. The objectives of banana breeding are disease resistance and reduction of plant height. The method consists of improvement of diploids and development of primary tetraploid and secondary triploid. The program at Honduras has good progress in diploid breeding. Some promising tetraploids developed are being evaluated for their commercial value. The tissue culture method for micropropagation of banana plantlets was developed in Taiwan, and it has been widely applied for producing disease-free plantlets for commercial planting and for using in the disease resistance screening program in recent years. Ten clones with moderate to high level of resistance to Fusarial wilt (race 4) were obtained through somaclonal variation. Among them, GCTCV-215 has the greatest potential in commercial production. Finally, the traditional breeding methodology and the noval approach using somaclonal variation is compared. Possiblity of using cell fusion and anther culture in banana variety improvement is discussed.
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