|Title:||蝴蝶蘭長程海運技術研究之應用與改良||Other Titles:||The application and improvement of the marine transportation technology for phalaenopsis plants||Authors:||黃肇家
|Keywords:||包裝;LED光照;啞梗;施肥;packaging;LED lightening;spike abortion;fertilization||Issue Date:||Nov-2012||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第164號||Start page/Pages:||9-23||Source:||2011年花卉研究團隊成果發表會專刊||Conference:||2011年花卉研究團隊成果發表會
Proceedings of the Symposium on Achievements of Floriculture Research Team of Council of Agriculture in 2011
台灣蝴蝶蘭海運歐美已經很普遍，早期出口腐損率曾達 30%以上，經產官學共同努力，研究改善貯運技術，目前出口腐損率一般都降到3%以下。早期之研究包括海運溫度之選定與控制，運輸濕度之控制，裝運方式之選定與改良等。近期之研究著重於帶梗株海運與高腐損苗株出口前預估等，這些技術與研究資料都有報告可參考。本報告就貯運技術新近之研究，提出部分研究成果。1.紙箱包裝之改善，發現上下打洞之改良型紙箱，可以降低運輸期間箱內之溼度， 維持於 85%RH，而慣行紙箱內之溼度約為95%RH。因此以改良型紙箱包裝可以降低腐損且可提高良率。2.帶梗株貯運，測試新的高光度白光LED 對降低啞梗之效果，結果比以往使用之低光度紅藍光LED 沒有更好之效果。以紅藍光LED 在貯運間光照，可以進一步縮短貯運後催花之時間，對Phal. Yu Pin Lady 則可增加植株開花壽命、花朵數及花序長，對其他2 個品種則不影響。貯運後栽培環境對啞梗有顯著之影響，在測試之4 個品項中，有2 個於貯後栽培於較高溫，啞梗率會增高，1 個品種相反，另1 個品種皆無啞梗。3.高風險苗海運前預估，以14 個品項試驗，結果有13 個品項之預估結果和模擬海運結果皆吻合，預估吻合度為92.9%。4.貯運後施肥改善開花品質，發現貯運後沒有適當施肥，植株開花時，葉片黃色值會升高，使下位葉呈黃綠色，適當施肥可以完全為持綠色，並顯著增加花朵數與花梗分叉數，提高開花品質。
Exporting phalaenopsis plants with marine shipment is common in Taiwan. In the early stage the transportation loss could be high up to more than 30%. Many technologies had been developed and applied commercially. At present the loss was mostly around 3%. The technologies include the control of transportation temperatures and relative humidity, the use of ventilated packages, acclimation before packing, pre-cooling before loading. Recent approach includes the improvement in carton package, the technology of transporting the plants with spike and the prediction of plants with high possibility in transport loss. A carton box with holes made on the cover and the bottom of the box was made. It is proved to maintain lower relative humidity (85%) than the conventional carton box (95%). The new box is effective in lowering the loss of plants as well as maintaining better quality of the plants. Abortion of spike occurred on transporting the plants with spike. New LED with white light and higher light intensity was used this year. The effect of the new LED is similar to or worse than 5R1B LED. LED lightening during transportation can shorten the time to anthesis on plants with spike. It also increased the flower number and life in one variety but has no effect on the other two varieties, Abortion of spike can be reduced when the plants were kept at lower temperature than higher temperature after storage. Plants with high possibility of loss during transportation can be predict. The accuracy was 92.9% in the 14 items tested. Plants after long term simulated transportation may sometimes exhibit leaf yellowing symptoms during flowering stage and may have poorer flowering performance. Suitable fertilizer supply such as fertilization with 20N-8.7P-16.6K (Peters Professional 20-20-20) weekly after transportation could keep the leaves green and increase flower number.
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