|Keywords:||田間栽培;設施栽培;人工光源;光波段;光強度;菊花;Field cultivation;cultivation under protected structure;Artificial light source;Ling waveband;Light intensity;Chrysanthemum sp.||Issue Date:||Mar-2014||Publisher:||中華農藝學會、中華農業氣象會||Journal Volume:||11||Journal Issue:||1||Start page/Pages:||38-50||Source:||作物、環境與生物資訊||Abstract:||
菊花生育及開花期與周遭環境密切關聯，其中光環境將同時牽動植株生長及開花表現，本研究即在探討人工光源之特定波段光輻射與光照強度於夜間光照調節菊花開花期及其生長發育之影響，並比較田間露地與簡易設施栽培上之差異。田間試驗以夏菊產季之大花栽培種‘黃精競’作為試材，2012年3月種植於行政院農委會農業試驗所之農場（臺中市霧峰區）。試驗人工光源包括23W省電燈泡（energy-saving light bulb; ELB(下標23W)）、10 W白光LED（W(下標10W)）、10 W紅光LED（R(下標10W)）及10 W紅藍光組合LED（RB(下標10W); R : B= 3 : 1）等4種，評比未施予額外光照處理之對照組（CK）。本試驗自苗株種植當日起開始實施夜間光照處理（22:00～02:00，共4小時），直到無光照CK植株花蕾形成即停止照光。由生長性狀及生育進展之調查結果顯示，隨著不同特定波段光輻射之光強度增加，均能使植株之花莖高度、葉位數及地上部鮮重呈顯著的二次曲線上升趨勢。當RB(下標10W)及R(下標10W)光強度為1.0 μmol m^(-2) s^(-1)時具有最長的花莖高度，ELB(下標23W)光強度為0.7 μmol m^(-2)s^(-1)時可達到最大值，而W(下標10W)在本試驗結果則未達其他波段處理之高峰。在葉位數及地上部鮮重之結果，則與花莖高度表現雷同。另在生育進展方面，4種人工光源之不同光強度與見蕾、見蕾至開花及達開花所需天數呈顯著正相關，即隨著光照強度增加則可延長夏菊‘黃精競’之生育進展。4種光源處理之見蕾天數最大值均較CK植株之平均值增加了約20 d，見蕾至開花天數則延後5-10 d不等，故達開花天數延後25-30 d左右，惟見蕾至開花所需天數和光強度之相關性較不顯著。進一步比較2012年田間露地及2011年簡易設施盆栽之夏菊栽培結果，可發現在相近光源下，夏菊「黃精競」之花莖高度及生育進展於兩種栽培情境將出現差別效應，顯見光質與光量在影響菊花生長性狀及生育進展具有一定的比例權重，周遭氣象環境亦存在影響力。
Growth and development of Chrysanthemum sp. is affected by the environment and nature surrounding. In particular its growth and flowering are modulated by the light environment. The objectives of the present research were to investigate how different wavebands and light intensities of artificial light sources affecting growth, development and flowering of Chrysanthemum variety 'Huang-Jing-Ching', a cut-flower species, in summer season crop. Differential performance in field grown plants was compared with those grown under simple structure. Field experiment was conducted in the experimental farm of Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (Wufeng, Taichung) in summer season crop, March to June, of 2012, while potted plants were grown under simple structure in summer season crop of 2012. Four artificial light sources, 23W energy-saving light bulb (ELB(subscript 23W)), 10 W LED of white light (W(subscript 10W)), 10 W LED of red light (R(subscript 10W)) and 10 W LED of mixed red and blue light (RB(subscript 10W); R : B = 3 : 1) were adopted with no light treatment as check (CK). The nighttime illumination treatments started at the day of seedling planting, from 22:00 to 02:00 (4 h daily), and ended at the day when floral bud formation occurred in check plants. As indicated in growth traits and plant development parameters, height of stem, number of leaf node and aboveground fresh weight were increased by the increasing light intensity of light sources, but were remained in plateau when reached the climax. The maximum stem height was reached at 1.0 μmol m^(-2) s^(-1) for RB(subscript 10W) and R(subscript 10W), and was at 0.7 μmol m^(-2)s^(-1) for ELB(subscript 23W), but no such maximal point for W(subscript 10W). Similar results were found in number of leaf node and aboveground fresh weight. A positive relationship was observed in light intensity and three calculated plant development parameters, days required to floral bud formation, days from floral bud formation to flowering, and days required to flowering in all light sources. Light treatments would prolong days required to floral bud formation for up to 20 days than CK plants. It also extended 5 to 10 days in days from floral bud formation to flowering and hence, increased 25 to 30 days required from planting to flowering than no light treated plants. When compared the results of field grown plants in 2012 with those grown under simple structure in 2011, differential effects in height of stem and plant development were observed between these two growth scenarios with the similar light sources. Results indicated that light intensity and quality imposed certain weights on plant growth and development of variety 'Huang-Jing-Ching', and climatic environment also exerted its influences on this Chrysanthemum species.
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