|Title:||玉米未成熟胚培養(一)影響癒合組織形成因子之研究||Other Titles:||Immature embryo culture of Zea mays L. I. Factors affecting the callus induction||Authors:||廖成康
|Keywords:||玉米;未成熟胚培養;2,4-D;dicamba;Zea mays;immature embryo culture;2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid;dicamba||Issue Date:||14-Jan-1991||Publisher:||中華農藝學會||Journal Volume:||1||Journal Issue:||2||Start page/Pages:||101-113||Source:||中華農藝||Abstract:||
組織培養技術，應用於作物品種改良，其前題是必須能獲得大量之再生植株，因此建立一套具有高分化能力的培養系统有其必要，其中作物的基因型、培植體來源、年齡及培養條件爲成功與否的重要因素。本試驗以玉米未成熟胚爲培植體，探討影響癒合組織形成的因子。結果得知以授粉後十天，大小約1mm之未成熟胚，癒合組織誘導率最佳。接種時，胚擺放的角度以子葉盤朝上，胚軸與培養基接觸，較適合癒合組織的形成。MN-6基本培養基中加入植物生長調節劑dicamba (3，6-dichloroanisic acid )或2, 4-D (2，4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid )，對於癒：合組織形成的效果較NAA ( α- naphthaleneacetic acid )，2，4,5-T (2，4，5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid )佳，其中3 mg / 1 dicamba或1 mg / 1 2，4-D較適宜。3至9%的蔗糖濃度對癒合組織之誘導無顯著影響，12%之蔗糖則較不利於癒合組織之誘導。低氮素濃度培養基(MN-6基本培養基所含氮量之1 / 4，1 / 8及1 / 16X )所誘導之癒合組織，外形呈粘稍半透明狀，有類似non-embryogenic callus之構造；高氮素濃度(1/2及IX )培養基所誘導之癒合組織，質地較爲緊密，且多呈embryogenic callus之外觀，較有利於未來植株之分化。
The application of tissue culture technologies on crop improvement depends on the production of a large number of regenerated plants. To meet such purpose, it is important to develop a system which enables the cultured explants to show a high differentiation ability. Among the many factors involved, plant genotype and plant explant part to be cultured, medium composition and cultural conditions are considered essential in establishing a successful tissue culture system for any plant species. In this paper, factors affecting the induction of callus from immature maize embryos were studied. The optimum embryo age and size for callus induction were 10 days after pollination and about 1 mm in length, respectively. Immature embryo cultured with the embryo axis in contact with the culture medium showed the highest frequency of callus induction as compared to other positions of culture. Plant growth regulators dicamba and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) supplemented to MN-6 basal medium were more effective in inducing callus formation than α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Optimum concentration of dicamba and 2,4-D were, respectively, 3 and 1 mg/l. Concentrations of sucrose in the range of 3 to 9% showed no difference in their effect on callus induction. Callus induced from lower concentrations of nitrogen containing medium (1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 of the total nitrogen content in MN-6 basal medium) showed transparent and sticky appearance which looks like non-embryogenic callus. In contrast, callus produced from higher concentrations of nitrogen containing medium (1/2 and whole rate of nitrogen content in MN-6 basal medium) possessed higher regeneration ability due to their embryogenic callus appearance and compact structure.
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