|Title:||植物對氟化物、硫氧化物及氯化物之反應||Other Titles:||Responses of Plants to the Pollutants of Fluorides, Sulfur Oxides and Chlorides||Authors:||謝慶芳
|Keywords:||氟化物;硫氧化物;氯化物;毒害症狀;化學分析;Fluorides;sulfur oxides;chlorides;toxicity symptoms;chemical analysis||Issue Date:||Apr-1993||Publisher:||農業試驗所; 行政院環境保護署;中華農業氣象學會||Start page/Pages:||117-135||Source:||臺灣地區空氣污染與農業氣象對作物生產影響研討會專輯||Conference:||臺灣地區空氣污染與農業氣象對作物生產影響研討會
Proceedings of The Workshop on Effects of Air Pollution and Agrometeorology on Crop Production in Taiwan
植物對硫氧化物之反應也因種類不同而有很大差別，在300至600 ppb SO2之薰蒸室內，落花生、甘藷、蕹菜、甘藍、香蕉等都未出現明顯之受害症狀，而水稻、胡麻、心臟葉牽牛、唐菖蒲、番石榴等都於數天內於葉片上面出現褐色斑點。在連續30天，每天薰蒸8小時的情況下，植株上部成熟葉片可溶性SO4濃度之測定似可用以偵測環境是否遭受低濃度硫氧化物之長期污染。
The responses of plants to fluorides differed greatly with plant species. Gladiolus, banana, peanut, Bischofia javanica, Canarium album, Acer trifolium, and Liquidambar formosana were attributed to sensitive plants. Under the long-term polluted environment at 1~2 ppb of HF, the above plants showed the symptom of chlorosis or burn on the edge or tip of the leaves. However, Ficus microcarpa, Ficus elastica, Nerium oleander, Broussonetia papyrifera, and Ricinus communis were the tolerant plants that didn’t show any symptom even high concentration of fluorine was in the plant. As fluorides were accumulative in the plants, higher concentration of fluorine was usually found in the lower leaves of the plants, and the analysis of the lower leaves may provide a more reliable data for the detection of the pollution of fluorides.
The responses of plants to sulfur oxides also differed with plant species. Under the fumigation with 300 - 600 ppb of SO2, peanut, sweetpotato, water convolvulus, cabbage, and banana didn’t show clear injury symptom. However, different size and form of brown spots appeared on the leaves of lowland rice, sesame, morning glory (heart leaves), gladiolus and guave after several days of fumigation. After every 8 hour’s fumigation for 30 consecutive days, a substantial concentration of soluble SO4 was detected in the top matured leaves of fumigated than those in the check. This suggested that analysis of the soluble SO4 in the top matured leaves may be a useful way for the detection of the pollution of the lower concentration of sulfur oxides.
Chlorine gas mainly caused discoloration of the leaves; in the severe case, the plants showed edge or tip burn. However, the chlorine content in the plant was not significantly increased. Six hundreds and 900 ppm sodium chloride spray caused significant increase of sodium and chlorine in the plants, whereas the plants didn’t show significant symptom on the leaves. These data suggested that the data of leaf symptoms and plant analysis may be utilized for the identification of either chlorine gas injury or sodium chloride pollution.
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