|Title:||茶樹旱害與焚風害防護方法||Other Titles:||Drought and Foehn Injury Protection Method for Tea Tree||Authors:||鄭混元
|Keywords:||茶樹;乾早;焚風;防護方法;Tea tree;Drought;Foehn;Protection method||Issue Date:||Oct-2003||Publisher:||農業試驗所
|Related Publication(s):||農業氣象災害調查與防護技術||Start page/Pages:||113-126||Abstract:||
本文係綜合歷年來茶樹（Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze）乾旱與焚風災害田間調查及防護措施試驗。由結果顯示，花東地區旱季與非旱季之氣象變化呈現明顯的差異，花蓮縣瑞穗茶區在第二次夏茶常發生茶樹旱害，以青心烏龍受害最嚴重。由品種間的產量變化評估茶樹對旱季之反應，發現臺茶17號及香椽具較強的耐旱力，而臺茶5號、青心烏龍及水仙其耐旱力較弱，因此在容易發生旱害之茶區應選擇種植耐旱品種。茶樹行間敷蓋或掩埋稻殼確可改善早害之土壤環境障礙，包括土壞壓實、保水力及降低土壤溫度。春、夏及秋茶芽葉生育期均有焚風發生，以夏茶發生比率最高，達49％。茶芽受害癥狀以葉片下垂、葉緣、葉尖、節間乾枯燒焦、葉片皺縮、落葉、枝條褐化、茶菁老化最明顯。由相關分析顯示，茶芽受害程度與最大風速及焚風持續時問有極顯著的正相關。以夏秋颱風誘發之焚風茶樹受害較嚴重，例如溫妮颱風誘發之焚風；由季風或強勁氣流引發之焚風，茶芽受害較輕微。焚風發生時可利用噴水降低茶園溫度及提高相對濕度，減輕茶芽受害程度，而獲得較佳的茶菁品質。
This text was to integrate drought and foehn injury investigation and prevention measures for tea tree (Camellia Sinensis (L.) Kuntze) from 1989 to 2002 in southeastern tea districts in Taiwan. The investigative and experimental results showed: The Chin-Hsin Oolong was more severely drought-injuried in the 2nd summer tea season at Juisui tea district of Hualien Hsien. The climatic changes of drought and non-drought seasons were clearly distinct. The TTES No. 17 and Shiang Yuan had greater drought tolerance than others. Conversely, TTES No.5, Chin-.Hsin Oolong and Shoei Shian had less drought tolerance. At locations prone to drought, it is suggested to plant the drought tolerant varieties. The rice husk mulching or incorporation on the tea tree rows could prevent tea trees from drought injury and improve soil properties, including soil compaction, water conservation, and soil temperature cooling. Foehn is always occurring in spring, summer and autumn tea seasons. The summer tea season had the highest occurrence rate up to 49%. The injury symptoms appeared in the forms such as leaf droop, dryness in leaf apex, margin, stalk and internode, and inhibition of shoot growth. After grading the injury symptoms, it was found that the injury grade score was positively correlated with maximum wind speed and foehn duration time. The tea tree suffered heavy injury by typhoon-induced foehn in summer and autumn, so as to affect tea production and manufacturing. Lighter injury of tea tree appeared in monsoon or strong air current-induced foehn. When fochn occurs, the best way to protect tea tree is to use sprinkler irrigation to increase relative humidity and decrease air temperature. Tea shoot injury ratio was decreased after the treatment.
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