|Title:||降雨變化對茶園田間管理之影響情形||Other Titles:||Influence of Rainfall Change on the Tea Field Management||Authors:||簡靖華
Ching Hua Chien
Ru Hong Lin
|Keywords:||茶;降雨量;強降雨;Tea;Precipitation;Heavy Rainfall||Issue Date:||Nov-2015||Publisher:||農業試驗所||Related Publication(s):||農業試驗所特刊第186號||Start page/Pages:||154-163||Source:||因應氣候變遷及糧食安全之農業創新研究—103年度成果發表暨研討會論文集||Conference:||因應氣候變遷及糧食安全之農業創新研究 - 103年度成果發表暨研討會
Agricultural Innovation Studies for Coping with Climate Change and Food Security
茶是臺灣重要經濟作物之一，茶區由北至南分佈於不同緯度、海拔及氣候型態，因此降雨變化亦有區域性之差別；調查93 至102 年降雨變化，近10 年之年雨量變化幅度較大，其中以南部茶區最為明顯，東部茶區變化幅度較小，觀察年中降雨分佈，近2 年年中雨量枯水期與豐水期差異明顯增加，尤其以中部及南部茶區最明顯，造成春茶及冬茶萌芽期缺水，茶芽萌發受影響並造成減產，降雨日數平均以北部茶區最高，近2 年北部及東部茶區降雨日數稍增，中南部茶區之變化較小，近2 年北部、中部及南部茶區強降雨之發生皆有增加之情形，而東部茶區則稍緩，強降雨之發生使茶園之土壤及肥料容易流失，增加管理之成本及困難度亦影響製茶品質，茶園排水不及造成根系浸水受傷影響茶樹生長勢，使茶樹無法正常吸收水分而影響產量；赤葉枯病及枝枯病受雨量與溫度之交互影響，而小綠葉蟬遇降雨較少之年度則發生較為嚴重，強降雨過後小綠葉蟬之數量較少，本調查提供茶農做為田間栽培及產製管理調整之參考，期能減少因降雨變化帶來之農業損失。
Tea is an important economic crop in Taiwan, tea-growing area from north to south, located in different latitude, altitude and weather patterns, changes in rainfall therefore also with regional differences. Survey precipitation changes in 2004–2013, annual precipitation of nearly 10 years with greater change, the southern tea-growing areas was the most significant and eastern tea-growing areas was lesser extent. Observation of the rainfall distribution in each month between years, 2012 and 2013 the difference of dry season and wet season was more significant, especially in central and southern tea-growing areas, resulting in water shortage during tea leaf emergence stage of spring and winter, affected tea leaf bud germination and cause reduced production. The average of rainy days is highest in northern tea-growing areas, rainy days number in northern and eastern tea-growing areas increased slightly in nearly two years, the change of central and southern tea-growing areas was small, the heavy rainfall was occurs more frequently in northern, central and southern tea-growing areas than the eastern in 2012 and 2013, heavy rainfall cause the soil and nutrient loss and increased the management costs, reduced the tea production quality. Tea plantation drained too slow cause the tea root system injured and infect the tea growing, tea plants can’t absorption of water normally and reduced the yield. Tea brown blight and die-back blight infected effected by the interaction of rain and temperature, and the years with less precipitation the leafhopper occurs more serious. This investigation provides farmers as a reference of cultivate and product managed to reduce agricultural losses due to precipitation change.
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